(Circa 1350) A disease carried on ships from Asia to Europe that killed millions of people and helped end serfdom in Europe.
(1769-1821) General during the French Revolution, who seized power in 1799, declared himself emperor in 1804, and conquered much of Europe.
A religion based on the idea of self-denial taught by Gautama Buddha. Buddhists try to follow the Four Noble Truths, and the Eightfold path.
(1509-1564) He began a new Protestant Church in Geneva based on the belief in predestination, faith as the key to salvation, and a strict moral code.
Religion based on the teachings of Jesus, who preached forgiveness, mercy, and sympathy for the poor. Christians believe Jesus was the son of God who sacrificed himself to save mankind.
Belief system established by Confucius, emphasizing traditional values such as obedience and order.
(1473-1543) Polish astronomer who believed that the Earth orbited the sun. His work was banned by the church.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
(1789) Issued by the National Assembly during the French Revolution. It stated that government rests on the consent of the people, and people have certain protected rights.
(20th Century) Political system that developed in Germany, Italy, and Spain after World War I, marked by intense nationalism, belief in an all-powerful leader, and militarism.
(1789-1799) Revolution that overthrew the French monarchy, ended hereditary privilege, and made France more democratic. It was accompanied by violence and war.
(1917-1984) The daughter of Nehru and the first woman elected as India's Prime Minister. She was later assassinated.
(1869-1948) Leader who achieved Indian independence through non-violent, passive resistance to the British.
(1378-1417) Split that occured in the Catholic Church with two popes, one in Avignon and the other in Rome. The schism caused many to question the Church's authority.
(206 B.C.-220 A.D.) Han ivented paper and lead-glazed ceramics, gave examinations to candidates for imperial service, and increased trade over the Silk Road.
Religion in India that believes in many gods and goddesses, reincarnation, and that a person's behavior in life determines his or her form or caste in the next life.
(1588-1679) Englishman who wrote that man is "nasty and brutish" in nature and needs a central authority to keep order, or society would break down.
A pre-Columbian civilization in the Andes Mountains. The Inca excelled at engineering, and developed new food crops like potatoes.
(late 18th-early 19th centuries) Began in England. Changed the way goods were made, moving production from the home to factories and from hand to machine.
Religion founded by Mohammed, based on five pillars: faith in one God (Allah), prayer five times a day, charity, fasting, and making a pilgrimmage to Mecca at least once.
In 1948, the U.N. partitioned Palestine into two states - Israel and Palestine. Five neighboring Arab nations immediately declared war against Israel.
(1632-1704) Englishman who wrote that people enter into a social contract, and that government power comes from the people it governs, who have the right to overthrow an abusive government.
(1818-1883) Critic of capitalism whose ideas became the basis of Communism: believed workers would eventually overthrow their capitalist bosses.
(321-185 B.C.) Hindu Empire established in India. Emperor Asoka converted to Buddhism and improved roads, built hospitals, and encouraged education.
(1368-1644) Dynasty that followed the Mongols. The Ming moved China's capital to Beijing and ruled for 300 years of peace and prosperity.
System of government in which political power is inherited.
Belief in one god, shared by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) Argued for separation of powers in the "Spirit of Laws."
(1796-1815) Wars between Napoleon and the rest of Europe, which helped spread the ideas of the French Revolution.
The belief that each nationality is entitled to its own government and national homeland. The French Revolution ignited the spirit of nationalism in Europe. Nationalism was a cause of WWI.
(1643-1727) Scientist who discovered the laws of gravity, raising hopes that all the universe acted according to certain fixed and fundamental laws.
(1299-1923) A nomadic group of Turkish people from central Asia who emerge as the rulers of the Islamic world in the 13th century. They conquered Constantinople in 1453.
(16th Century) Movement begun in Germany by Martin Luther in 1517 in which many Christians left the Catholic church for protestant churches.
(221-206 B.C.) Shih huang-ti became China's first emperor. He unified China built roads and canals, and constructed the great wall to protect his empire.
Radical Islamic Fundamentalism
(post 1979) Reaction by radical muslims against western values. They seek a return to strict adherence to Islamic values and laws.
Jean Jacques Rosseau
(1712-1778) Stated that governments should follow the peoples general will. His writings inspired the democratic ideals of the French Revolution.
(17th century) Rejected traditional church teachings. Introduced scientific method in which people observed nature and tested hypothesis.
September 11, 2001
Al-Qaeda terrorists, living in the U.S. hijacked several commercial airliners and crashed them into the pentagon and the world trade center.
Religion that developed in Northern India, combining both Islamic and Hindu beliefs. Sikhs believe in one god, which can only be known through meditation.
(1723-1790) In his book, "The Wealth of Nations," Smith attacked mercantilism and explained how competition and the division of labor guided a free market system based on self interest.
Movement that believes that workers should have the government to pass laws to curb abuses of workers and that the government should even take over some businesses.
(960-1279) Period of great economical progress in China, marked by the first use of paper currency and standardized coins.
Completed in 1869, the Canal provided a shorter route from Europe of East Africa, Indian and Eat Asia. It served as a life line between Britain and India.
the use of acts of violence against innocent civilians, such as hijacking planes and attacking schools in order to make demands on a hostile government.
a society governed by religious leaders; for example, present day Iran.
(1989) Chines student were fired on by tanks while leading peaceful demonstration for greater personal freedom and democracy.
a government that controls all aspects of life.
(1893-1976) Chinese Communist leader who drove the Nationalist Chinese out of China in 1949. He instituted brutal measures to achieve Communist control of China, including the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.
(1027-256 B.C.) Zhou rulers justified their rule as the Mandate of Heaven -- if a ruler was selfish and ruthless, Heaven would overthrow him.
(618-907) Tang rulers suppressed peasant uprisings, reunited China, revived traditional feudal relationships, and brought peace and prosperity.
Commandments in the Jewish religion prohibiting stealing, murder, and other forms of immoral behavior.