What is the oral cavity?
What lives in the oral cavity?
many microenvironments, 300+ species of bacteria(some aerobic and anaerobic), beneficial bacteria, and opportunisitc bacteria
What are viral infections of the oral cavity?
cold sores, fever blisters, superficial vesicles on an erythematous base
What is an example of a viral infection of the oral cavity?
Herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2
Where are the viral infections of the oral cavity usually located?
face or lips
Why do the viral infections of the oral cavity reactivate?
stress, physiological change, fever, trauma
What patients usually have severe viral infections of the oral cavity?
How do bacterial oral cavity infections occur?
biofilm formation, tarter(calculus), dental plaque, anaerobic bacteria
What is dental plaque?
masses of microorganisms attach to the tooth
What are dental caries?
tooth decay or cavities
How do dental caries occur?
start when enamel(external surface) is dissolved by organic acids produce by dental plaque. then enzymatic destruction of matrix, cavitation, and bacterial invasion
What is the cause of dental caries?
streptococcus mutans which ferment glucose and produce lactic acid
What is gingivitis?
inflammation of gingiva(gums)
What is periodontitis?
inflammation of tissues that support the teeth including the gingiva and supporting bones
What is periodontal diseases the result of?
dextran formation from sugars by streptococci, acid production by lactobacilli, depostition of calculus by actinomyces spp, secretion of endtoxins by bacteriodum spp
How do you prevent periodontal diseases?
good health and oral hygiene
What is colitis?
inflammation of the colon(large intestine)
What is diarrhea?
abnormally frequent discharge of semi-solid or fluid fecal matter
What is dysentery?
frequent watery stools accompanied by abdominal pain, fever, and dehydration. stool specimans may have mucous or blood
What is enteritis?
inflammation of intestines(usually small intestines)
What is gastritis?
inflammation of stomach
What is gastroenteritis?
inflammation of stomach and intestines
What is hepatitis?
inflammation of liver
What is viral gastroenteritis?
alot of viruses
What ages can get viral gastroenteritis?
What are the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis?
nasuea, diarrhea, vomitting, abdominal pain, myalgia, headache malaise, low-grade fever
Is viral gastroenteritis self-limiting?
most are,(24-48 hours), infatalities in infants, young chidren, rotavirus is main cause of most children, rapid antigen detection
What are the reserviors of gastroenteritis?
infected humans, contaminated water, food
How is viral gastroenteritis transmitted?
fecal-oral route, foodborne, waterborne, shelllfish
How is gastroenteritis transmitted in the hospital setting?
contact with contaminated fomites, airborne transmission
Type A viral hepatitis?
fecal, oral contamination(food)
Type B viral hepatitis?
kills healthcare wokers(needlestick), contact with infected humans
Type C viral hepatitis?
usually through blood transfusion, progresses but are symptomless until about 20 years later
Are there vaccines for HAV and HBV?
Who is required to take the HBV vaccine?
healthcare workers exposed to blood
What is HBV immune globin?
It can be given to people who are unvaccinated who have been exposed to HBV
What causes bacterial gastritis and duodenal ulcers?
What is helicobacter pylori?
curved, microaerophillic, capnophillic, gram-neg rod
Where does helicobacter pylori grow?
on stomcachs mucous-secreting cells
What does helicobacter pylori tolerate?
What else is associated with helicobacter pylori?
gastric ulcers and adenocarcinoma
What are the reserviors for bacterial gastritis and ulcers?
How is bacterial gastritis and ulcers transmitted?
What is the diagnosis for bacterial gastritis and ulcer?
NH4 excretion test, urea breath test, culture of duodenal biopsy
What is NH4 excretion test?
patients consume urea containing NH4 and excrete it by urine
What is urea breath test?
patients ingest urea containing CO2 and 60 mins later breath in a tube
What causes campylobacter enteritis?
campylobacter jejuni, other C. spp
What is campylobacter jejuni?
spiral-, gull-winged-shaped, gram-negative rod, microaerophillic, capnophillic,
What degrees does campylobacter jejuni have optimum growth?
42 degrees celcius
What is campylobacter enteritis?
acute disease, asymptomatic to severe
What is campylobacter enteritis the major cause of in the U.S.?
What are the symptoms of campylobacter enteritis?
diarrhea, vommiting, nausea, fever, malaise, abdominal pain
Is campylobacter enteritis self-limiting?
yes, its usually self-limiting lasting 2-5 days
What are in the stools if you have campylobacter enteritis?
gross or occult blood, mucous, WBCs
What are the reserviors for campylobacter enteritis?
animals, raw poultry
How is campylobacter enteritis transmitted?
contaminated food, water, animals, cutting boards
What is the diagnosis for campylobacter enteritis?
culture on a selective agar; micraerophillic atmosphere increased CO2 at 42 degrees celcius
What is the cause of salmonellosis?
salmonella spp. which is gram-neg bacilli, invade intestinal cells, produce toxins
What are the symptoms of salmonellosis?
sudden onset headache, abdominal pain, nausea, sometimes vomitting
What are the reservoirs of salmonellosis?
domestic, wild animals
How is salmonellosis transmitted?
contaminated food and water, fecal-oral route
What is the diagnosis of salmonellosis?
What causes typhoid fever(enteric fever)?
salmonella typi, salmonella paratypi
What is typhoid fever?
systemic disease; if untreated 10% mortality
What are symptoms of typhoid fever?
fever, sever headache, malaise, anorexia, rash on trunk, nonproductive cough, constipation
What are complications of typhoid fever?
meningitis, endocarditis, gall bladder, liver, bone infection, pneumonia, bacteremia
What are the reserviors for typhoid fever?
infected humans, carriers
How is typhoid fever transmitted?
fecal-oral route, contaminated food, water, shellfish, flies
What is the diagnosis for typhoid fever?
culture from clinical specimen
What causes cholora?
vibrio cholorae serogroup 01 which are curved, gram-neg bacillus, halophillic, and in marine envir.
What is cholora?
an acute disease
What are symptoms of cholora?
profuse watery stools, occasional vomitting, rapid dehydration
If cholora is untreated, what happens?
circulatory collapse, renal failure, death may occur, 50% mortality
What are the reservoirs for cholora?
infected humans, aquatic zooplankton
How is cholora transmitted?
fecal-fecal, contact with feces, vomitus of infected, contaminated water and food
What is the diagnosis for cholora?
culture on selective media
What is another name for exterotoxigenic e. coli?
What are symptoms of enterotoxigenic e. coli?
profuse, water diarrhea, mucous or blood, vomitting, abdominal cramping, dehydration, low-grade fever
How is exterotoxigenix e. coli transmitted?
fecal-oral, contaminated foos and water
What is the reservior for exterotoxigenix e. coli?
What is the diagnosis for exterotoxigenic e. coli?
culture, usually not performed
What causes enterohemorrhagic e. coli(EHEC)?
e. coli O157:H7 most common serotype
What does enterohemorrhagic e. coli produce?
shiga-like toxins(shiga toxins)
What are the symptoms for enterohemorrhagic e. coli?
hemorrhagic, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramping, mild or no fever
What can enterohemorrhagic e. coli progress to?
What is hemolytic-uremic syndrome?
anemia, low platelet count, kidney failure *5%progress to this
What is the reservoirs for enterohemorrhagic e. coli?
cattle, infected humans
How is enterhemorrhagic e. coli transmitted?
fecal-oral, contaminated undercooked beef, food and drinks
What is the diagnosis for enterhemorrhagic e. coli?
culture of e. coli O157:H7 using selective/differential media, or enzyme immunoassay for shiga toxin
Do you use treatment for enterohemorrhagic e. coli/
NO!!! trying to give antimicrobial created more HUS