developing involving the body's physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep
development involving the ways that growth and change intellectual capabilities influence a person's behavior
development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life's pan
the way in which individuals interactions with others and their social relationships grow and change over the life's pan
a group of people born at around the same time in the same place
a specific, but limited time, usually early in an organism's life during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relating to some particular facet of development.
a specific time, during development when a particular event has it's greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally
Nature: refers to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from one's parents'
Erickson's Psycho-social Stages of Development
Encompasses changes in individuals understanding of themselves and of others behavior. There are 8 distinct stages:
1) Birth-12 months: Trust vs. Mistrust
2) 12 months-3yrs: Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
3) 3-6: - Initiative Vs. Guilt
4) 6-12: - Industry vs. Inferiority
5) 12-18: - Ego identity vs. Role Confusion
6) 18-40: - Intimacy vs. Isolation
7) 40-65: - Generatively vs. Self Absorption
8) 65+: - Integrity vs. Despair
The approach that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli.
Piaget's Two Principles of Growth
Assimilation & Accommodation
the process by which a sperm and an ovum-the male and female gametes, respectively join to form a single new cell
The new cell formed by the process of fertilization.
Gametes. . . Are sex cells. Reproductive cell: A Spermatozoon or an ovum, which is a cell responsible for transmitting DNA to the next generation.
Di zygotic & Mono zygotic
the basic unit of genetic information
Note: 25,000 Genes = 46 Chromosomes = 23 Chromosome Pairs = 1 Human Cell
a factor that produces a birth defect., agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Mothers' AIDS & The Fetus (Chance of transmission and results of treatment w/antivirus like AZT)
AIDS is the newest of the diseases to affect a newborn. It can be passed on to their fetuses through the blood that reaches the placenta. AIDS are treated with antiviral drugs such as AZT during pregnancy, in which due to a study less than 5% of infants are born with the disease.
Duration of Pregnancy In Days
Germinal Stage: Fertilization - 2 Weeks
Embryotic Stage: 2 Weeks - 8 Weeks
Fetal Stage: 8 Weeks - Birth
40 WEEKS = 9 MONTHS + 1 WEEK
1 - 2 - 3 MONTHS = 1ST TRIMESTER
4 - 5 - 6 MONTHS = 2ND TRIMESTER
7 - 8 - 9 MONTHS = 3RD TRIMESTER
painless Contractions of the muscles of the uterus that continues throughout pregnancy with increasing frequency
Episiotomy: an incision sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass
Stages of Labor & What Happens
1st Stage: uterine contractions initially occur around every 8 - 10 minutes and lasts about 30 seconds. (Longest Stage)
2nd Stage: Lasts around 90 minutes, baby;s head proceeds further with each contraction, increasing the size of the vaginal opening. (Sometimes epistomy occurs) then baby has completely left mom'd body.
APGAR Scale: A standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns. (Virginia Apgar)
1) Appearance (color)
2) Pulse (heart rate)
3) Grimace (reflex irritability)
4) Activity (muscle Tone)
5) Respiration (respiratory effort)
(Score from 0 - 2 on each quality)
a restriction of oxygen to the baby lasting a few minutes during the birth process cognitive defects
fine, dark fuzz that covers the newborns body that soon disappears
thick greasy substance (like cottage cheese) that covers the newborn and smoothes the passage through the birth canal
the gap at the connection between neurons, through which neurons chemically communicate with one another
the elimination of neurons as the result of non use or lack of stimulation
Piaget's: How Infant's Acquire Knowledge
STAGE 1: 1 to months (simple reflexes)
STAGE 2: 1 to 4 months (1st habits & primary circular)
STAGE 3: 4 to 8 months (end circular)
STAGE 4: 8 to 12 months (coordination of secondary circular reactions)
STAGE 5: 12 to 18 months (tertiary circular reactions)
an organized patterns of functioning that adapt and change with mental functioning
Principles of Separation Anxiety and Stranger Anxiety
Stranger Anxiety: the caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person
Separation Anxiety: the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
an emotional response that corresponds to the feelings of another person
positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another
patterns of arousal and emotionally that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual.
Temperament Styles: Easy, Slow to Warm Up, Difficult
the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in
thinking that does not take into account the view points of others
memories about one's own life
Vygotsky is the first develop mentalists to recognize and acknowledge the importance of cultural factors in development.
Social Cognitive Theory
Children are social/ learn & talk with others.
Children have ongoing experiences in company of adults to guide them.
Children are continuously learning from others with more advanced knowledge.
the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth
the way in which an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences
the system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed
the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others.
Social Learning Approach
- they emphasize how social and environmental conditions teach individuals to be (aggressive)
- children learn (gender-related) behavior and expectations by observing others, including parents, teachers, siblings, and even peers.
- social learning approaches acknowledge that some instances of children's pro-social behavior stem from situations in which they have received positive reinforcement for acting in a (moral way)
a philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual
a philosophy that promotes the notion of the interdependence
the perception of oneself as male/female
Cycle of Violence Hypothesis
the theory that abuse and neglect of children leads them to be predisposed to abusiveness as adults.
Abuse that occurs when parents/other caregivers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning.
According to developmental psychologist Albert Bandura and colleagues, a significant amount of learning is explained by social cognitive learning theory " an approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model."
the process in which modeling paves the way for the development or more general rules and principles
the changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues
helping behavior that benefits others
body weight more than 20% higher than the average weight for a person of a given age and height
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a learning disorder marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity
Concrete Operational Stage
the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active, and appropriate use of logic
the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved
Zone of Proximal Development(ZPD)
according to Lev Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent
intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem solving situations
an individuals overall and specific positive and negative self evaluation
a person's identity or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual
the process in which people understand a new experience in terms of their current stage cognitive development and existing ways of thinking
refers to changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events
Di Zygotic Twins
are twins who produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time
Mono zygotic Twins
twins who are genetically identical
rod shaped portions of DNA that are organized in 23 pairs
parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way
parents who are controlling, punitive rigid, and cold, and whose word is law. They value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement.
parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children.
refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior