JFK and LBJ- U.S. History Final

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Election of 1960

Nixon vs. Kennedy

Kitchen Debate

Was a famous discussion between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev. It signaled that the U.S acknowledged their setback in technology since Nixon focused on technological luxuries.

Kennedy's religion

- JFK is Catholic
- KKK began to become anti-Catholics
- Catholics have to answer to the Pope who 'answers' to God
- Americans see Catholicism as a dictatorship not a democracy

Kennedy Nixon Debates

Kennedy looked better

Bay of Pigs

In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Cuban Missile crisis

An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.

Ortsac

The plan to take out Castro

Missiles in Turkey

We had missiles in turkey aimed at the USSR

Kennedy's address to the nation

Kennedy said that there was no threat, and there would be a quarantine

Naval Blockade

We blocked Cuba because it had USSR bombs

Resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis

We took our missiles out of turkey, and the USSR took theres out of Cuba, but we put even more powerful ones underwater

JFK assassination

1963: JFK assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald was then shot by Jack Ruby when being transferred between jails. The Warren Commission was created to investigate the crime.

LBJ

Vise President to JFK,1963-1969, deomcrat, passed civil rights act of 64, was a very good negotiator, included a program called Great Society, presidency based on vietnam war, passed Gulf of Tonkin and said "to take any measures nessesary", decided to escalate American involvement in Vietnam, proved to be extremely unpopular

Civil Rights Act

1964: This secured the rights of freedmen., it gave citizenship to African- Americans

Voting Rights Act

1965: Gave the federal government the right to monitor voting

Michael Harrington

Reported on the extreme poverty of the time

Election of 1964

Johnson vs. Goldwater

Goldwater

Extremely Conservative, wanted freedom, and small government at home, but large international

Origin of Vietnam War

Johnson needed to show that he was anti-communist because his plans at home looked like them were. So he wanted to fight a communist leader to protect them

Ho Chi Minh

Northern Communist Leader

Vietcong

A group of Communist guerrillas who, with the help of North Vietnam, fought against the South Vietnamese government in the Vietnam War.

Vietminh

An organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that between 1946 and 1954 fought for Vietnamese independence from the French

Domino Theory

If one country falls to communism, they all will

Ngo Dinh Diem

Non-communist southern leader

Robert McNamara

Secretary of Defense, pushed for more troops in vietnam

Gulf of Tonkin

Johnson claimed that a Vietnamese ship fired on an american one

War Powers Resolution

A law passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force within 48 hours and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. Presidents view the resolution as unconstitutional.

Ho Chi Minh Trail

A network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong during the Vietnam War.

Tet offensive

1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment

Walter Cronkite

A newscaster who was known for his objectivity and trustworthiness, who said that the war in Vietnam would end in stalemate. Johnson knew that if even Cronkite didn't support him, nobody in Middle America supported him.

Pentagon Papers

Secret government documents published In 1971; revealed that the U.S. government had misled americans about the vietnam war.

Vietnamization

President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces

Hawks and Doves

Hawks are people who supported the war's goal. and Doves were people who opposed the war.

Outcomes of the War

Johnson became extremely unpopular, and decided not to run again

Nixon

Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States, promised to pull troops out of Vietnam

Plumbers/ CREEP

A group Nixon started to plug the leaks that lead to to pentagon papers, were responsible for watergate

Watergate

1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down

Change in the 60's

People stopped trusting the old values, and started to rebel. ex. Hippies

Carter

Wanted a very open and transparent government, which people responded well to because of the sneaky nature of the administrations before him

Reagan

40th republican with a strong anti-communist view
Influenced fall of communism
Talked with gorbachev to end Cold War

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