when来is precedded by a time expression, it means "during....," and can be replaced by 以来. But when 以来is preceded by an event, it means "since (the happening of that event up to now)" and cannot be replaced by 来. (see L18)
所谓, meaning "what is called," is used to introduce a term which is then explained in the following phrase or clause. 所谓 means "so-called" when it is used to quote someone else and usually implies disagreement.
由can be equivalent to 从 indicating a starting point in time or space or the starting point of a change. It mainly takes a noun or adfective as ites object.
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