Anthropology exam 3 chapter 9

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One of the chief advantages of slash and burn cultivation is that

produces food without complex technology

While studying the Yanomamo, Napoleon Chagnon found that soil depletion was not the only reason these peoples move thier garden plots. His research found that:

major populations movements of the Yanomamo were due to warfare and conflict with neighbors.

Antrhopologists use the term pastoralists to refer to peoples who

rely primarily on herd animals such a caribou, cattle, sheep or goats

Nuer subsistence, like that of many other pastoral peoples

depends heavily upon the blood and milk of their animals

Compared with hunting and gathering band level societies, tribal societies are

larger, more sedentary and have fairly well defined territories.

Property rights in tribal societies

are usually vested in the family and other finship groupings

Unilineal descent groups are lineage groups that

trace their ancestry to either the fathers or the mothers ancestors

a few tribal societies practice what is called___ in which relatives are traced thru both maternal and paternal sides of the family simultaneously

bilater descent

A clan is a special kind of descent group whose members are define by

common descent from unknown or sacred beings, such a special animals or plants

Which of the following secent groups is likely to result in the most flexible and loosely structured corporate social unit.

a clan

When two or more clans recognize that they share a common genealogical relationship, the more general grouping of these clans is known as a

phratry

A society that is organized into moieties has a particular social organization that structures it into:

equal halves with specific functions

Levi Strauss has used the term generalized exchange to refer to a cycle of marital exchange in which among Lineages A,B,c

Lineage B always give women to Line A but takes its wives from Line C

Polygyny in tribal socieites is most closely related to

bride service

When the descent group of a man transfers some of its wealth to the descent group of a woman at or around the time of their marriage this practice is

bridewealth

The most important belief underlying the practice of having a widow marry one of her brother in law is

the rights of the deceased husband must be preserved

Among the functions of bridewealth is

compensation to her family for the loss of a womans labor

The most common form of polyandry is ___ in which brothers share a wife.

fraternal polyandry

When a married couple goes to live in the house of the brother of the husbands mother the post miarital residence pattern is referred to as

avunculocal

In most tribal societies rules of descent marriage and residence are

unconscious, and therefore defined mostly by outsiders

In general divorces are most common among societies that are

matrilineal and matrilocal

Deborah Gewertz who has re examined meads interpretations of the Tchambuli arrived at the conclusion that

meads interpretations failed to take specific historical circumstances into account

Most modern anthropologists have come to the conclusion that matriarchy

is not part of the archaeological, historical and ethnographic record

Sociobiologists view patriarchy in tribal societies as a consequence of

reproductive strategies in which male competition for females leads to conflict

It has been suggested that the status of women in tribal societies

is related to how much they contribute to the subsistence activities of the group

Corporate groups of people of about the same age who share specific rights, obligations, duries and privileges within a society and progress through various stages of life together are called

age sets

The term gerontocracy refers to governance by

a group of village elders

One type of sodlity is defined as

an association of individuals that cuts across kinship groups

Among the Yanomam the village headman leads

by example and persuasion rather than coercion

One of the ways that big men in melanesia can gain the allegiance of followers is to

impress them by sponsoring a feast of pig meat from hi s familys herd

Likeband societies tribal societies

have decentralized political systems in which authority is vested among a number of individuals groups and associatiosn

A form of tribal political organiztion found based on mulitple descent groups, that are interrelated and serve certain political functions is known as

segmentary lineage system

One of the most significant causes of warfare among tribal horticulturalist societies is

acquisition of land

In tribal socieites, disputes and conflicts are usually resolved by

skilled individuals who function as medicators or negotiators

Among the Azande of East Africa, crop failures were typically attributed to

witchcraft

Among many tribal societies, sorcery provides a way of explaining

severe illnesses and the spread of disease

Totems are animals, spriits or deities that have specific links to

a particular descent group

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