First Aid: Gram-Negatives

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Gram-; oxidase+; "comma-shaped;" growth at 42degC

Campylobacter jejuni ("It's hot at summer Camp"). Oxidase+ = Campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae, pseudomonas

Gram-; oxidase+; "comma-shaped;" grows in alkaline media

V cholerae. Oxidase+ = Campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae, pseudomonas

Gram- coccus; ferments maltose (and glucose)

N meningitidis ("MeninGitidis ferments Maltose and Glucose")

Gram- coccus; ferments glucose only

N gonorrhoeae ("Gonorrhoeae ferments only Glucose")

Gram- cocco-bacillus; requires factor V & X for growth on chocolate agar

H influenzae (epiglottitis, meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia in children). Growth w/staph aureus ==> increased b/c S aureus produces NAD+ (factor V) and hematin (factor X) during hemolysis

Gram- cocco-bacillus; infections result from dog/cat bites

Pasteurella ("when the dog bites you, it's time to put it out to pasture")

Gram- cocco-bacillus; cause of whooping cough

Bordetella pertussis

Gram- rod; rapid fermenter of lactose

Klebsiella (aspiration pneumonia in diabetics/alcoholics; "red currant jelly sputum") OR E coli (multiple varieties)

Gram- rod; slow fermenter of lactose

Serratia (serratia marascens = maraschino cherries), Citrobacter, etc. (not important)

Gram- rod; lactose non-fermenter; oxidase-; non-motile; H2S- on TSI agar

Shigella (highly virulent). No flagella. Fecal-oral transmission. Invades intestinal mucosa ==> bloody diarrhea. Only 10^1 organisms required for infection.

Gram- rod; lactose non-fermenter; oxidase-; motile; H2S+ on TSI agar

Salmonella spp. Flagellated, can disseminate hematogenously. Invades intestinal mucosa ==> bloody diarrhea.

Gram- rod; lactose non-fermenter; oxidase+

Pseudomonas

Poorly-staining GNR that visualizes better w/silver stain; grows on charcoal yeast extract w/iron and cysteine

Legionella pneumophila

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