rhetoric

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91 terms

Tone

attitude the narrator wants the reader to take toward a setting, character, or idea

Mood

emotional response of the reader

Diction

word choice

Denotation

dictionary definition of a word

Connotation

emotional definition of a word

Subtext

meaning or emotion underneath the words

Assonance

repetition of vowel sounds

Consonance

same ending sounds

Alliteration

same beginning sound

Onomatopoeia

sound words, imitative harmony

Imagery

words that create mental pictures

Personification

inanimate objects or abstract ideas given human characteristics

Pathetic Fallacy

a form of personification - only it is not a character in the story

Simile

a comparison using like or as

Metaphor

a direct comparison

Extended Metaphor

a metaphor which changes and grows throughout the story

Controlling Metaphor

a metaphor around which the entire story revolves

Metonymy

describing something indirectly by referring to things around it

Synecdoche

a part is used to represent the whole (crown=king)

Pathos

words which evoke sorrow

Bathos

reaching for the sublime, the tone results in the absurd

Allusion

literary, historical, artistic reference

Aphorism

a short witty statement

Apostrophe

form of personification, speaking to an absent or dead person or object as if it is there

Motif

pattern; repeated image, symbol, idea

Symbol

a word that represents a larger idea or concept

Colloquial

the use of slang in writing

Dialect

the recreation of regional spoken language

Cliche

an overused expression

Conceit

a particularly clever extended metaphor

Inference

a conclusion drawn from presented details

Epitaph

an inscription on a tombstone

Epigraph

the use of a quotation at the beginning of the work which often hints at a theme

Eulogy

a formal speech praising one who has died

Homily

a sermon or moralistic lecture

Didactic

writing whose purpose is to instruct or teach

Pedantic

scholarly, academic writing that is difficult to understand

Figurative Language

literary devices that enable an author to operate on levels other than the literal (simile, metaphor, etc)

Oratory

a formal, often pompous, speech

Jargon

technical, specialized language

Irony

an unexpected outcome

Verbal Irony

saying one thing but meaning the opposite

Situational Irony

unexpected outcome in the plot

Dramatic Irony

where the audience knows more than the character

Oxymoron

contrasting words placed together for effect

Paradox

statement that contradicts itself - "the more you learn the less you know"

Pun

a play on words that are identical or similar in sounds but differ in meaning

Hyperbole

exaggeration

Understatement

making a situation seem less important or serious than it is

Euphemism

making something sound nicer than it is; candy-coated words

Antithesis

direct contrast or opposite

Satire

a political comment through the use of humor

Parody

a comic imitation that ridicules the original. It can be mocking or gently humorous

Sarcasm

type of irony in which a person seems to be praising something but actually insulting

Subtext

meaning or emotion underneath the words

Zeugma

a type of pun where the use of a word modifies two or more words, but used for different meanings (On the fishing trip, he caught three trout and a cold.)

Ambiguity

deliberately unclear, having multiple meanings

Conflict

choices a character makes in relation to an obstacle (problem)

Characterization

change and growth of the character

Foil

character whose behavior and values contrast with those of another character

Archetype

a detail, image, or character type that occurs frequently in myth and literature, thought to appeal to the unconscious

Point of attack

when the story begins

Exposition

events that take place before the story begins

Flashback

a device that enables a writer to refer to past thoughts, events, episodes

Epiphany

a moment of great revelation

Foreshadowing

clues that tip the reader off as to what is to come later in the work

Anecdote

ashort account of an interesting or humorous incident, intended to illustrate or support some point

Climax

point of understanding or awakening (not necessarily emotional)

Anticlimax

when the reader expects a climax to occur and it doesn't happen

Denouement

the "unravelling" or resolution of the story, falling action

Setting

time and place of a story

Theme

the underlying message

Allegory

a story that functions on the symbolic level

Parable

a story that operates on the symbolic level and teaches a lesson or moral

Syntax

word order or organization

Parallelism

sentences, or parts of a sentence with similar structure

Repetition

using the same word or phrase for emphasis

Anaphora

repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences

Chiasmus

a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is reversed ("Susan walked, and in rushed Mary.")

Deductive Reasoning

a form of logic that moves from the general to the specific

Inductive Reasoning

a form a logic that moves from the specific to the general

Syllogism

a formal argument that consists of a major premise, a minor one, and a conclusion

Analogy

a comparison between two dissimilar ideas or things

Rhetorical Question

a question that does not expect an explicit answer

Antithesis

direct contrast or opposite

Juxtaposition

words, phrases, ideas placed side by side for effect

Ad Hominem

a rhetorical strategy that attacks the person rather than the idea

Non Sequitur

an inference that does not follow logically from the premise (literally, does not follow)

Logical Fallacy

a mistake in reasoning

A Priori Reasoning

a conclusion that can be arrived at without any observations of the world, but relies only on logical connections between ideas

Enumeration

a numbered list

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