Biology: Living Environment Regents Review

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A years worth of Biology vocabulary.

Accuracy in Science

Required so experiments can be repeated by others. If an experiment is repeatable it's validity can be tested.

Hypothesis

Educated guess based on observations

Variable

Factor that changes

Independent Variable

Variable being tested

Dependent Variable

Data you collect

Experimental Group

Group being tested

Control Group

Group not being tested(used to compare)

Constant

Factors that remain the same

Trails

The more trials that occur, the more accurate the data

Conclusion

Statement based on results. You never prove or disprove a hypothesis

Graphing

You use graphs to show trends in data. It is a picture of the data.

Metric System

A universal system of measurement based on 10's

Units of the Metric System

meter, kilometer, centimeter-length
liter, mililiter-volume
grams, kilograms-weight
celcius, kelvin-temperature

Volume

Amount of space of an object. For liquid use a graduated cylinder in liters and mililiters. Measure at the bottom of the meniscus.

Mass

The amount of matter an object has. You use the triple beam balance and measure in grams and kilograms.

Density

How much weight there is in an area. D=mass/volume. Measured in grams/mililiter^3

Characteristics of all Living Things

Reproduction
Growth and Development
Exert Waste
Exert Energy
Regulation
Respiration
Nutrition
Circulation
Synthesis

Nutrition

Organisms take in materials from the environment and use them.

Transport

Materials are distributed throughout the body.

Respiration

The release of energy from food.

Excretion

The release of waste products.

Synthesis

Large molecules are built from smaller molecules.

Growth

Increase in the number and size of cells.

Regulation

Control, coordinate, and manage activities.

Reproduction

Creation of offspring(important for the species).

Metabolism

Sum of all life functions.

Element

Substance made of one type of atom.

Compound

More than one type of atom combined.

Organic Compounds

Organic compounds always have BOTH Carbon(C) and Hydrogen(H), inorganic do not.

Bonds

2 or more atoms combined by sharing or transferring electrons.

Ion

A positively or negatively charged atom.

Acid

Substance with H+(hydrogen ions). Has a pH of 0-6. Ex. Hydrochloric Acid.

Base

Substance with OH-(hydroxide ions). Has a pH of 8-14. Ex. Sodium Hydroxide.

Neutral

Substances with a pH of 7 are neutral.

Hydrion Paper

An indicator that gives a numerical pH value for a substance.

Nutrients/Indicators

Sugar-Benedicts Solution
Lipids-Paper Towel
Starch-Lugol's Iodine
Protein-Biuret Solution

Enzymes

Living proteins inside the body that help to speed up reactions.

Substrate

The chemical an enzyme breaks down/puts together. They only fit to a specific enzyme.

Active Site

Where the enzyme attaches to a substrate.

Dehydration Synthesis

Putting molecules back together by removing water.

Hydrolysis

When molecule are broken down by adding water (digestion).

Lock and Key Model

Enzymes fit with a certain substrate like a lock and key.

Induced Fit

When an enzyme molds itself to fit with a substrate.

Factors Effecting Enzyme Action

Temperature, enzyme concentration, pH balance, and substrate concentration.

Ecology

The interrelationships of an organism and the physical environment.

Niche

The functional role of a species in an ecosystem.

Autotroph

An organism that obtains energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to make organic substances.

Heterotroph

An organism that must get energy from food sources.

Herbivore

Organisms that eat only plants and algae.

Carnivore

Organisms that eat only flesh(other animals).

Omnivore

Organisms that eats both plants and meat.

Scavenger

Carnivores that feed on dead animals they find.

Preditor

The carnivores that capture and feed on prey.

Prey

Something that is being healthy.

Decomposer

An organism that breaks down dead animals and other non-living things.

Predator/Prey Populations

Fluctuate together.

Carrying Capacity

The maximum amount of organisms an area can sustain.

Limiting Factor

A factor that causes population growth to decrease.

All Ecosystems Have

Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
Food Webs

To Be Self-Sustaining

A source of energy
Organisms that make organic compounds
Recycling of materials

Ecological Structure

(Smallest to Largest)-Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere.

Population

All members of one species in an area.

Community

All living things together in an area.

Ecosystem

All living and non-living things together.

Biosphere

The living part of Earth.

Biodiversity

A variety of living organisms in an area.

Symbiosis

Organisms evolve to have a relationship (good or bad).

Mutualism

When both organisms benefit.

Commensalism

One organism benefits and the other is unaffected.

Parasitism

Only one organism benefits.

Food Chain

Shows a transfer of energy from green plants to organisms that feed off each other.

Food Web

Shows a complex interactions of many food chains in an ecosystem.

Biogeochemical Cycle

The process in which elements and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.

Evaporation

Process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas.

Transpiration

The loss of water from a plant through it's leaves.

Nutrient

Chemical substance that an organism requires to live.

Nitrogen Fixation

The process of converting nitrogen gas into amonia.

Denitrification

Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas.

Primary Productivity

Rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem.

Ecological Succession

Gradual changes in living communities that follow a disturbance.

Primary Succession

Succession that occurs on surfaces with no soil.

Pioneer Species

The first species to populate an area.

Secondary Succession

Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil.

Classification

Biologists classify organisms to arrange them in a clear organized manner.

5 Kingdom Order

Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Fungi, and Monera.

Prokaryote

First cell. No nuclear membrane (Monera).

Eukaryote

True cell. Has nuclear membrane
(all other kingdoms).

Binomial Nomenclature

We refer to organisms by two words; genus+species. Universal naming system.

Species

Members can only mate with members of the same species.

Cell Membrane

Membrane surrounding the cell controlling what enters/exits the cell (security).

Cytoplasm

Fiber-like substance that supports organelles (building).

Nucleus

Control center of the cell (stores genetic info) (boss).

Nuclear Membrane

Allows substances to enter/exit the nucleus (office).

Ribosome

Synthesize (build) proteins (machines).

Nucleolus

Synthesize ribosomes (matinence). Nucleolus builds ribosomes, ribosomes builds proteins.

Lysosome

Contains digestive enzymes to break down materials (janitor).

Vacuole

Membrane enclosed sac that contains material (food vacuole and contractile vacuole) (storage).

Mitochondria

Power house of the cell (respiration) (energy).

Golgi Complex

Prepares and packages material for storage and secretion (packaging).

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Interconnecting channels that transport and store substances. Rough ER-ribosomes, Smooth ER-no ribosomes (hallways).

Centriole

Aides or helps in cell division (animal cells).

Chloroplast

Contains chlorophyll; photosynthesis. (sun makes sugar, uses sun energy to make glucose) (plant cells).

Cell Wall

Provides structure and support for cell (plant cell).

Atomic Order (smallest to largest)

Atom, Compound, Organelle, Cells, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism.

Cell Theory

The theory that states 1) cells come from pre-existing cells, 2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function.

Osmosis

The diffusion of H2O. Osmosis is the process which water goes through a membrane so the cell can maintain water balance (equillibrium).

Passive Transport

Movement from high concentration to low concentration (no energy).

Active Transport

Movement from low concentration to high concentration (energy).

Glycolysis

The process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid; a 3-carbon compound.

Cellular Respiration

The process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.

Aerobic Respiration

Respiration requiring oxygen.

Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen.

Fermentation

Process that releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen.

DNA

Contains genetic information about an organism.

Chromosome

Structures containing large amounts of DNA.

Fertilization

The fusion of egg and sperm nuclei.

External Fertilization

Fertilization outside the female body (usually in water).
Animals: fish, amphibians, aquatic invertabres.

Internal Fertilization

Fertilization inside the female body. Is an adaptation for land. Needs a penis and vagina or cloaca(birds) for sex organs.

Zygote

Fertilized egg.

Cleavage

(Mitosis) Division of the early stages of an embryo.

Twins

Fraternal: 2 eggs released and fertilized separatly.

Identical: One fertilized egg splits into two separate parts during cleavage.

Differentiation

Cells specialize.

Blastula

Hollow ball of cells, folds in to become the gastrula.

Internal Development

Embryo develops inside the female.

Placental Mammals

The placenta is an organ that gives food and oxygen to the embryo in the uterus.

Marsupials

No placenta, the egg contains more yolk than placental mammals, the offspring are born premature and climb up to a pouch where they nurse on milk.

External Development

Development of the egg outside of the body. Land animals have a shell on the egg so they do not dry out.

Fetus

After 9 weeks the embryo is called a fetus.

Ultrasound

When sound waves are used to create a picture of the fetus.

Amniocentisis

The removal of fluid from the amniotic sac (by needle) to test for genetic disorders.

Placenta

Blood vessels from the embryo an mother make up the placenta. Nutrients, wastes, and gases diffuse across the blood vessels (blood does not mix). Drugs, alcohoal, and harmful chemicals can also pass through the placenta.

Umbilical Cord

Cord attaching fetus to placenta.

Labor

Concluding state of pregnancy.

Contractions

When the uterus muscles contract to push the baby out.

Mucus Plug

Mucus that blocks the cervix is discharged.

Cervix

Dilates to allow the baby to exit uterus.

"Water Breaks"

Amnion breaks, and fluid is discharged.

"After Birth"

When the placenta is discharged after the baby is born.

Meiosis to Differentiation

Meiosis, Fertilization, Mitosis (cleavage), Morula, Blastula, Differentiation (gastrula).

Plasmid

Tiny loop of DNA.

Recombant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.

Restriction Enzyme

Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.

Fossil

Direct or indirect remains of organisms.

Direct Fossil

Bones, feces, organisms, teeth, shells.

Indirect Fossil

Imprints, footprints.

Where are fossils found?

Sedimentry Rock
Amber
Ice
Tar
Petrification

Relative Dating

Comparison of rock layers to show when species existed, in relation.

Absolute Dating

Radioactive Dating-Look at the decay of radioactive materials (1/2 life) to determine the age of rocks and fossils.

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