Accuracy in Science
Required so experiments can be repeated by others. If an experiment is repeatable it's validity can be tested.
Educated guess based on observations
Factor that changes
Variable being tested
Data you collect
Group being tested
Group not being tested(used to compare)
Factors that remain the same
The more trials that occur, the more accurate the data
Statement based on results. You never prove or disprove a hypothesis
You use graphs to show trends in data. It is a picture of the data.
A universal system of measurement based on 10's
Units of the Metric System
meter, kilometer, centimeter-length
Amount of space of an object. For liquid use a graduated cylinder in liters and mililiters. Measure at the bottom of the meniscus.
The amount of matter an object has. You use the triple beam balance and measure in grams and kilograms.
How much weight there is in an area. D=mass/volume. Measured in grams/mililiter^3
Characteristics of all Living Things
Growth and Development
Organisms take in materials from the environment and use them.
Materials are distributed throughout the body.
The release of energy from food.
The release of waste products.
Large molecules are built from smaller molecules.
Increase in the number and size of cells.
Control, coordinate, and manage activities.
Creation of offspring(important for the species).
Sum of all life functions.
Substance made of one type of atom.
More than one type of atom combined.
Organic compounds always have BOTH Carbon(C) and Hydrogen(H), inorganic do not.
2 or more atoms combined by sharing or transferring electrons.
A positively or negatively charged atom.
Substance with H+(hydrogen ions). Has a pH of 0-6. Ex. Hydrochloric Acid.
Substance with OH-(hydroxide ions). Has a pH of 8-14. Ex. Sodium Hydroxide.
Substances with a pH of 7 are neutral.
An indicator that gives a numerical pH value for a substance.
Living proteins inside the body that help to speed up reactions.
The chemical an enzyme breaks down/puts together. They only fit to a specific enzyme.
Where the enzyme attaches to a substrate.
Putting molecules back together by removing water.
When molecule are broken down by adding water (digestion).
Lock and Key Model
Enzymes fit with a certain substrate like a lock and key.
When an enzyme molds itself to fit with a substrate.
Factors Effecting Enzyme Action
Temperature, enzyme concentration, pH balance, and substrate concentration.
The interrelationships of an organism and the physical environment.
The functional role of a species in an ecosystem.
An organism that obtains energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to make organic substances.
An organism that must get energy from food sources.
Organisms that eat only plants and algae.
Organisms that eat only flesh(other animals).
Organisms that eats both plants and meat.
Carnivores that feed on dead animals they find.
The carnivores that capture and feed on prey.
Something that is being healthy.
An organism that breaks down dead animals and other non-living things.
The maximum amount of organisms an area can sustain.
A factor that causes population growth to decrease.
All Ecosystems Have
To Be Self-Sustaining
A source of energy
Organisms that make organic compounds
Recycling of materials
(Smallest to Largest)-Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere.
All members of one species in an area.
All living things together in an area.
All living and non-living things together.
The living part of Earth.
A variety of living organisms in an area.
Organisms evolve to have a relationship (good or bad).
When both organisms benefit.
One organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
Only one organism benefits.
Shows a transfer of energy from green plants to organisms that feed off each other.
Shows a complex interactions of many food chains in an ecosystem.
The process in which elements and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
Process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas.
The loss of water from a plant through it's leaves.
Chemical substance that an organism requires to live.
The process of converting nitrogen gas into amonia.
Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas.
Rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem.
Gradual changes in living communities that follow a disturbance.
Succession that occurs on surfaces with no soil.
The first species to populate an area.
Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil.
Biologists classify organisms to arrange them in a clear organized manner.
5 Kingdom Order
Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Fungi, and Monera.
First cell. No nuclear membrane (Monera).
True cell. Has nuclear membrane
(all other kingdoms).
We refer to organisms by two words; genus+species. Universal naming system.
Members can only mate with members of the same species.
Membrane surrounding the cell controlling what enters/exits the cell (security).
Fiber-like substance that supports organelles (building).
Control center of the cell (stores genetic info) (boss).
Allows substances to enter/exit the nucleus (office).
Synthesize (build) proteins (machines).
Synthesize ribosomes (matinence). Nucleolus builds ribosomes, ribosomes builds proteins.
Contains digestive enzymes to break down materials (janitor).
Membrane enclosed sac that contains material (food vacuole and contractile vacuole) (storage).
Power house of the cell (respiration) (energy).
Prepares and packages material for storage and secretion (packaging).
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Interconnecting channels that transport and store substances. Rough ER-ribosomes, Smooth ER-no ribosomes (hallways).
Aides or helps in cell division (animal cells).
Contains chlorophyll; photosynthesis. (sun makes sugar, uses sun energy to make glucose) (plant cells).
Provides structure and support for cell (plant cell).
Atomic Order (smallest to largest)
Atom, Compound, Organelle, Cells, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism.
The theory that states 1) cells come from pre-existing cells, 2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function.
The diffusion of H2O. Osmosis is the process which water goes through a membrane so the cell can maintain water balance (equillibrium).
Movement from high concentration to low concentration (no energy).
Movement from low concentration to high concentration (energy).
The process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid; a 3-carbon compound.
The process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Respiration requiring oxygen.
Respiration that does not require oxygen.
Process that releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen.
Contains genetic information about an organism.
Structures containing large amounts of DNA.
The fusion of egg and sperm nuclei.
Fertilization outside the female body (usually in water).
Animals: fish, amphibians, aquatic invertabres.
Fertilization inside the female body. Is an adaptation for land. Needs a penis and vagina or cloaca(birds) for sex organs.
(Mitosis) Division of the early stages of an embryo.
Fraternal: 2 eggs released and fertilized separatly.
Identical: One fertilized egg splits into two separate parts during cleavage.
Hollow ball of cells, folds in to become the gastrula.
Embryo develops inside the female.
The placenta is an organ that gives food and oxygen to the embryo in the uterus.
No placenta, the egg contains more yolk than placental mammals, the offspring are born premature and climb up to a pouch where they nurse on milk.
Development of the egg outside of the body. Land animals have a shell on the egg so they do not dry out.
After 9 weeks the embryo is called a fetus.
When sound waves are used to create a picture of the fetus.
The removal of fluid from the amniotic sac (by needle) to test for genetic disorders.
Blood vessels from the embryo an mother make up the placenta. Nutrients, wastes, and gases diffuse across the blood vessels (blood does not mix). Drugs, alcohoal, and harmful chemicals can also pass through the placenta.
Cord attaching fetus to placenta.
Concluding state of pregnancy.
When the uterus muscles contract to push the baby out.
Mucus that blocks the cervix is discharged.
Dilates to allow the baby to exit uterus.
Amnion breaks, and fluid is discharged.
When the placenta is discharged after the baby is born.
Meiosis to Differentiation
Meiosis, Fertilization, Mitosis (cleavage), Morula, Blastula, Differentiation (gastrula).
Tiny loop of DNA.
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.
Direct or indirect remains of organisms.
Bones, feces, organisms, teeth, shells.
Where are fossils found?
Comparison of rock layers to show when species existed, in relation.
Radioactive Dating-Look at the decay of radioactive materials (1/2 life) to determine the age of rocks and fossils.