specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the seperation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Define crossing over
process in which homolgous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
structure containing 4 chromosomes that forms during meiosis
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosomes
The nuclear membrane breaks down...
Sister chromatids move apart...
Chromosomes line up along the center of the cell...
Two new nuclear membranes from...
Cytoplasm pinches in half...
The cell grows...
List the 4 phases in the cell cycle
G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, M phase
Gametes are produced in...
The symbol (n) stands for _________ and 2(n) stands for _________.
During mitosis, the number of cells created are...
The number of gametes made in males are _________. In females are _________. (functional)
4 sperm, 1 egg
List the 4 phases of mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
How many cell divisions are there during mitosis?
How many cell divisions are there during meiosis?
Humans have _________ number of chromosomes in every body cell and _________ number of chromosomes in the sex cells.
Chromosomes move to opposite poles during anaphase by the assistance of there fibers _________.
If the gametes of an organism contain six chromosomes, the normal body cells must _________ chromosomes.
Define the principle of dominance
some alleles are dominant and some are recessive
Define the principle of probability
can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses
refers to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
refers to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
Define the principle of segregation
separation of alleles during gamete formation
Define the principle of indpendent assortment
independent segregations of genes during the formation of gametes
Define incomplete dominance
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another (ex. pink)
Define linked genes
any pair of genes that tend to be transmitted together
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
True or False: Mendel's principles of genetics apply only to plants.
True or False: Linked gened are on the same chromosome.
True or False: Polygenic inheritance means one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene.
True or False: The farther apart two genes are location on a chromosomes, the more likely that are to be linked.
True or False: Two genes are on the same chromosome and rarely assort independently, are probably located close to each other.
Describe the process of Evolution by natural selection.
trait in an animal that gives that animal a better chance of survival
Describe the practice known as artificial selection. Provide 3 examples.
natural provides variation and humans pick
ex. horse, cat, dog, plant
Summarize Lamarck's theory of aquired traits?
inheritance of acquired traits
How would one diprove Lamarck's theory of acquired traits?
cut of 2 rats' tails and leave them to reproduce
What is an adaption?
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance for survival
ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in a specific enviornment
How does a desirable adaption allow an individual to exhibit a high level of fitness in the theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?
with adaptions and natural selection the organism has a higher chance of survival
Describe the results obtained in the pepper moth lab.
light moths are more visible in dark locations and dark moths are more visible in light locations
What is a vestigial structure, give examples?
organ that serves no useful function in an organism
ex. apendix, tail bone
What is a homologous structure, give an example?
structures that have different mature forms
Explain why Sustainable Development practices are important.
its a way of using natural resources without depleting them, takes in account both the functioning of ecosystems and the ways that human economic systems operate
Compare and contrast Renewable and Nonrenewable resources.
renewable - replenishable by Earth
nonrenewable - not replenishable by Earth
Compare Global Warming and The Greenhouse Effect.
global warming - increase in average temperature of biosphere
greenhouse effect - heat is retained by green house gas
What is the greatest threat to biodiversity?
Describe Biological Magnification.
increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a fodd chain or food web
List the seven levels of classification:
what is the most general classification level in Linnaeus' system?
Define the term pathogen.
Describe the make up of a typical virus.
nucleic acid, protein, and sometimes lipids
What are the two types of autotrophs? Describe how these organisms are able to synthesize food molecules.
plant and bacteria
photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
List the 5 types of heterotrophs and describe their mode of nutrition.
herbivor - plant
carnivor - meat
omnivor - plant and meat
detritivor - dead matter
decomposer - break down organic matter
List the levels of organization from the individual organism to the Biosphere.
individual - population - community - ecosystem - biome - biosphere
Define the term trphic level.
each step in a food chain/web
Distinguish between primary, secondary, and third level consumers and provide an example of each.
primary - herbivore - mouse
secondary - carnivore - snake
third level - carnivore - owl
How do the biomass, population of numbers, energy relate to a pyramid?
biomass - grams of organic matter per unit area
numbers - amount of food for a top consumer
energy - 10% passed on
Identify the levels of consumers and producers in an enery pyramid? Provide and example of this food chain.
producer - first level - ex. plant
consumer - everything above first level - snake/ bunny
Define the 10% Rule.
10% of energy is given of to the next organism while the 90% is lost as heat between trophic levels
Compare the flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
flow of energy - one-direction, matter is recycled, decreases ex. energy
flow of matter - not recycled byt multiplies, ex. DDT
Compare Nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Which organisms play a key role in there 2 processes?
fixation - convert nitrogen gas to ammonia
denitrification - convert nitrates to nitrogen gas
Define population density and provide an example.
number of individuals per unit area
ex. 100 canadian guess per 1 mile
Compare the logistic and exponential groth curves.
logistic - when population's growth slows or stops folled by exponential growth
exponential - individuals in population reproduce at a constant rate
Distinguish between Density Dependent, Density Independent,and Limiting Factors. Provide 2 example of each.
dependent - depends on population size, ex. predation and disease
independent - affect all populations in similar way, regardless of size, ex. natural disasters and seasonal cycles
limiting factors - foctor causing population growth to decrease, ex. competition and drought