What are symbolic representations?
mental representations of objects and people that can be manipulated in the mind
When do symbolic representations show according to Piaget's cognitive development?
Preoperational stage - 2-7 years old
Why does Piaget consider young children preoperational thinkers?
bc they are unable to apply operations - actions internalized as symbols that can be reversed and coordinated
What is an example of not understanding operations?
recognizing that a broken cookies has the same amount of cookie it would if it wasn't broken
What is dual representation?
ability to mentally represent both facets of a thing - the thing as a real object and the thing as it stands for something else
What is a conservation task?
tasks used to assess children's use of operations, in which children must decide whether a transformed object is the same as or different from what it was before
What is an example of a conservation task?
2 balls of clay are the same size
one ball of clay is shaped into a long thin snake
the child says the long thin snake has more clay, but actually they have the same amount of clay.
child cannot see they are the same
What is identity concept?
recognizing essential sameness of an object despite physical changes to it
What do young children lack in the preoperational stage?
What is irreversibility?
the inability to understand that an operation can be undone, returning something to its original form
What is centration?
tendency to focus attention on the most obvious and striking characteristic of an object, while ignoring others
Thinking guided by appearances, what things look like, rather than logic.
What are the limitations in the preoperational stage?
1) lacking identity concept
4) static thinking
What is static thinking?
concentrating on the outcome, rather than the changes that produced the outcome
What is transductive reasoning?
inference that if two particular examples or events occur together, they must be causally related
What is a young child's limitation understanding concepts?
can categorize at a global level, such as food, animals, people, but cannot categorize within the category, such as different types of dogs
What limitation do young children have with categorization?
they fail to understand that one person or object may belong to multiple categories simultaneously.
i.e. a mother can also be a daughter
class inclusion- part-whole relations
What is an example of class inclusion?
When asked if there are more brown dogs (subclass) or more dogs (whole class), child answers incorrectly
What is egocentrism?
assumption that their own perspective is shared by other people
What is an example of egocentrism?
when a young child is on the phone, they assume the person can see what they see
What is animism?
attributing life-like qualities to objects that are not alive
According to Piaget, the egocentric thinking of children in the preoperational stage inhibits their ability to distinguish between
things that are alive and those that are not
What did the research indicate criticizing Piaget?
Piaget's tasks were to demanding and confusing for preschool children. When tasks were simplified, children were able to complete tasks accurately
Piaget underestimated young children's capabilities to solve problems using logical principles
What did Vygotsky believe private speech helped?
helps guide thinking
Young children remember _____ than older children and adults
What 3 reasons are young children's capacities to remember more limited than adults?
1) tendency to be easily distracted
2) failure to use memory strategies
3) Lack of awareness (no use of metacognition)
What are scripts?
routines in everyday interactions and events
By what age are scripts developed?
How do children become experts?
organizing info differently
An understanding of inner mental events
People think, imagine, pretend and wonder about the world around them
theory of mind
What does developing theory of mind represent?
children learn to separate the external world from the inner workings of the mind
T/F Children at age 3, can distinguish between deceptive objects from reality. i.e. A sponge which looks like a rock.
False they are confused
How do children learn the specific cognitive skills and values associated with their own culture?
6) assignment of responsibility
What is social communicative competence?
ability to effectively convey a message to others
Researchers estimate children learn about __ words a day before first grade
Children's early vocabularies have more ____ than ____
nouns than verbs
How do children learn verbs?
What is syntactic bootstrapping?
using the context of the sentence to provide cues for the meaning of a verb
What are the 2 types of language styles children in middle class US use?
referential language style
expressive language style
What is referential language style?
developing a vocabulary that includes many object names and use these labels to name things in the environment
What is expressive language style?
use words to regulate social interactions with adults and have fewer object names in their vocabulary
What style is used when children experience vocabulary explosion at the end of second year?
referential language style
Three year olds may ask questions using what and where, but do not form questions using ___ or ___
why or how
What is semantic bootstrapping?
children use what they know about the meaning of words to help them decipher syntactic structure of language
What is overregularization?
incorrect use of "ed" on all verbs
and incorrect use of plural "s" on nouns
occurs at 3-4 years of age
When do children use connectives to join simple sentences?
around 4 years of age
What is an instrument used to measure the aspects of a stimulating environment?
What do high HOME scale scores indicate?
higher test scores on language development and cognitive development
A good preschool mimics older children's elementary education classes
A good preschool is geared specifically for the active young child.
What are indicators of a high quality preschool?
2) Setting- safe
3) Teacher/Child ratio
4) Teacher Qualifications
5) Parent involvement
Many experts in child development oppose emphasis on early academic training, why?
1) children learn best when they are actively involved in learning
2) Children who are pushed at a young age may lose interest
When did Project Head Start begin?
War on Poverty to serve economically disadvantaged
What is the goal of Sesame Street?
to promote the intellectual growth of preschoolers, particularly disadvantaged preschoolers
T/F The influence of Sesame Street is stronger on 3 year olds than 5 year olds