sequence of the four major groups of plants in the fossil record, from most ancestral to most recent
bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms
The following evolutionary adaptations contributed to the ability of bryophytes to colonize land
the function of vascular tissue in plants
to conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant
The main evolutionary advantage of pollen is
the ability to transport male gametes without water
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary. Ex. Oak Tree
In flowering plants, meiosis in an anther produces
spores that develop into the male gametophytes
a male gametophyte is also known as
a pollen grain
meiosis in an ovule results in a
spore that develops into a female gametophyte which produces and egg
Pollination occurs when a pollen grain lands on an
develops into a seed
When an ovary matures it becomes a
The uptake of small nutrient molecules from the environment is known as
One of the many filaments making up the body of a fungus is called a
The densely branched network of fungal filaments is a
A close association of fungi and plant roots that is beneficial to both is called a
An organism that derives its nutrition from a living host is called a
Fungi absorb food through the
Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants
A sperm and egg are each
They fuse during fertilization to produce a
a gametophyte produces gametes and a sporophyte produces
Which type of cell division is used during the production of spores?
Which of the following correctly defines alternation of generations
life stages that cycle between haploid and diploid phases
The first stage of the diploid generation is the
Reproduction of plants differs from reproduction of animals in that
plants have a distinct, multicellular haploid phase
In pines, the female gametophyte contains archegonia, each of which contains a(n)
In pines, an embryo is a(n)
In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the
the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo
functions as a haploid food reserve.
In the pine, microsporangia form _____ microspores by _____.
haploid ... meiosis
Unlike mosses and ferns, pines can thrive in arid regions because _____.
they have seeds and pollen
Gingko biloba, a common urban shade tree, is a gymnosperm with a life cycle that is like that of the pine. Which of the following would be haploid?
Which of these is unique to flowering plants?
the male gametophytes of flowering plants are also referred to as _____.
In flowering plants one megaspore gives rise to _____ nuclei.
A stamen consists of _____.
anther and filament
In angiosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen grain to the _____ of a flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species.
Which two features do angiosperms and gymnosperms have in common?
seeds & pollen
Which combination of traits would you expect in the female and male flowers of a wind-pollinated plant?
emale: drab with large sticky stigmas; male: drab with many large anthers
Trees provide _____.
source of energy
a home for animals
a sink for carbon
a source of oxygen
Leaves capture light energy and use it to make
Trees require _____ to survive
sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water
To capture light energy by photosynthesis, plants require a chemical called
Which of the following animals help to spread pollen from flower to flower
Yeasts reproduce asexually through _____, and molds reproduce asexually through _____.
budding ... spores
As a group, fungi are _____
Fungi release digestive enzymes into their _____.
asidia produce spores by a process known as _____.
Which of the following represents a case of an opportunistic fungal pathogen?
A common mold called Aspergillus can cause severe respiratory and systemic infections in people with HIV.
Many people see some fungi as dangerous pathogens or destroyers of crops and food. Which of the following claims concerning the beneficial nature of fungi is true?
Healthy plants and forests could not be sustained without mycorrhizal fungi and fungal decomposition.
Which correctly pairs a challenge to living on land with the relevant plant adaptation
water loss ... cuticle
Ferns have vascular tissue, an adaptation to life on land, but they have an ancestral reproductive trait that tends to limit them to moist habitats. What is it
Pine trees and other gymnosperms have _____ but not _____, which is/are present only in angiosperms
seeds ... fruit
Four Challenges of Living on Land
1. Maintaining moisture
2. Obtaining resources
3.Being able to support itself
a waxy layer on surface of leaves and stems that prevents drying out in air
tiny pores on the leaf surface which allow exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
vessels that conduct water from the roots upward
Vessels that conduct sugars from leaves to other parts of the plant
a substance that makes cell walls rigid
where plants produce sperm and eggs in protective shells
reproductive cells that can develop into another organism without fusing with another cell.
vascular plants include
seedless plants (ferns, club mosses)
seed forming plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms)
produce spores, lack true root, stems, and leaves (moss, liverwort, hornwort)
Have well-developed roots and rigid stems, which means they can grow much taller than mosses.
Are most diverse in tropical regions. Have flagellated sperm, and so need water to swim to the egg for fertilization (just like mosses).
Gymno means naked; sperm means seed. These seeds are not enclosed within a fruit, but lie "naked" on the scales of cones.
are an important adaptation for life on land. They can lie dormant for years until conditions are favorable for germination.
Gymnosperms include all
conifers (evergreens) such as pines, spruces, firs, and hemlocks, as well as cycads and ginkgoes
All reproductive stages of a conifer are housed in a cone! example Redwood Blue spruce Cedar
Seed Plants: Angiosperms
The most successful (and most colorful!) type of plants on earth. Includes all flowering plants. All have a dominant sporophyte generation - the plant itself.The flower houses the gametophytes.
are enclosed in a fruit -
male part of the flower; made up of an anther and a filament
pollen producing structure located at the tip of a flower's stamen
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
part of the carpel that traps pollen
(botany) the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma
flower part that enlarges to become the fruit
Angiosperm Reproduction 1
A flower has a carpel at its center with an ovary at the base
Angiosperm Reproduction 2
Ovules inside the ovary contain spores which develop into female gametophytes to produce the eggs
Angiosperm Reproduction 3
Pollen grains from the anthers can land on the stigma and grow a pollen tube down to the ovule, where a sperm can fertilize the egg, producing a zygote
Angiosperm Reproduction 4
Pollination occurs when pollen sticks to the stigma, either blown there by the wind or delivered by an animal pollinator.
Angiosperm Reproduction 5
A pollen tube grows toward the ovule in the ovary, carrying 2 sperm cells that were held in the pollen grain.
Angiosperm Reproduction 6
Fertilization occurs when the sperm enter the ovule
Angiosperm Reproduction 7
One sperm fertilizes the egg cell, forming a diploid (2n) embryo.
Angiosperm Reproduction 8
The other sperm joins with other cells in the ovule to produce the endosperm, a source of stored food for the embryo.
Why make fruits?
Plants go to all the trouble of making fruits in order to be sure their kids leave home! seeds must be dispersed away from the parent plant so there is less competition for resources like water, soil minerals, and light.
located at the tip of stem where new growth occurs in the spring
Axillary (lateral) bud
Location of lateral growth of a stem
Attaches the leaf to the stem
Layer in woody plants that produces xylem and phloem
Fungi are actually heterotrophic organisms, but they don't "eat" or ingest their food like animals do. Instead...
they secrete enzymes to digest their food outside their bodies and then absorb the small nutrient molecules into their cells!
the branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of Multicellular fungi
Many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi
Fungi can reproduce either asexually
When food and moisture are plentiful, fungi reproduce asexually, producing haploid spores.
When conditions become unfavorable, most fungi can reproduce sexually. The nuclei of adjoining hyphae fuse to form diploid zygotes, which undergo meiosis to form durable haploid spores.
is a single-celled fungus that reproduces asexually by mitosis or by budding
These are the only fungi with flagellated spores and are common on lakes, ponds, and soil.
Some are decomposers, while others are parasitic on protists, plants, and animals.
These fungi include fast-growing molds such as black bread mold and molds that rot fruits and vegetables. Many of the preservatives added to prepared foods discourage growth of these fungi.
These fungi form mutually beneficial symbiotic partnerships with plants.
This diverse group of "sac fungi" produce spores in saclike structures called asci.
They include unicellular yeasts, morels and cup fungi
These fungi produce spores at the ends of club-like structures called basidia. This is the most familiar fungal group, and includes mushrooms, puffballs, and the shelf fungi that grow on rotting logs.
The Mushroom Life Cycle has 3 Stages:
1. heterokaryotic (fruiting body)
Each diploid zygote produces spores