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biology pearson campbell chapter 17 plants vascular plants fungi

sequence of the four major groups of plants in the fossil record, from most ancestral to most recent

bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms

The following evolutionary adaptations contributed to the ability of bryophytes to colonize land

waxy cuticle

the function of vascular tissue in plants

to conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant

The main evolutionary advantage of pollen is

the ability to transport male gametes without water

angiosperm

A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary. Ex. Oak Tree

In flowering plants, meiosis in an anther produces

spores that develop into the male gametophytes

a male gametophyte is also known as

a pollen grain

meiosis in an ovule results in a

spore that develops into a female gametophyte which produces and egg

Pollination occurs when a pollen grain lands on an

sitgma

pollen grain

produces sperm

ovule

develops into a seed

When an ovary matures it becomes a

fruit

The uptake of small nutrient molecules from the environment is known as

absorption

One of the many filaments making up the body of a fungus is called a

hypha

The densely branched network of fungal filaments is a

mycelium

A close association of fungi and plant roots that is beneficial to both is called a

mycorrhiza

An organism that derives its nutrition from a living host is called a

parasite

Fungi absorb food through the

mycelium

Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants

chloroplasts

A sperm and egg are each

haploid

They fuse during fertilization to produce a

diploid cell

a gametophyte produces gametes and a sporophyte produces

spores

Which type of cell division is used during the production of spores?

meiosis

Which of the following correctly defines alternation of generations

life stages that cycle between haploid and diploid phases

The first stage of the diploid generation is the

zygote

Reproduction of plants differs from reproduction of animals in that

plants have a distinct, multicellular haploid phase

In pines, the female gametophyte contains archegonia, each of which contains a(n)

egg

In pines, an embryo is a(n)

immature sporophyte

In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the

micropyle

the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo

functions as a haploid food reserve.

In the pine, microsporangia form _____ microspores by _____.

haploid ... meiosis

Unlike mosses and ferns, pines can thrive in arid regions because _____.

they have seeds and pollen

Gingko biloba, a common urban shade tree, is a gymnosperm with a life cycle that is like that of the pine. Which of the following would be haploid?

pollen

Which of these is unique to flowering plants?

double fertilization

the male gametophytes of flowering plants are also referred to as _____.

pollen grains

In flowering plants one megaspore gives rise to _____ nuclei.

8

A stamen consists of _____.

anther and filament

In angiosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen grain to the _____ of a flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species.

stigma

Which two features do angiosperms and gymnosperms have in common?

seeds & pollen

Which combination of traits would you expect in the female and male flowers of a wind-pollinated plant?

emale: drab with large sticky stigmas; male: drab with many large anthers

Trees provide _____.

source of energy
a home for animals
a sink for carbon
a source of oxygen

Leaves capture light energy and use it to make

sugars

Trees require _____ to survive

sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water

To capture light energy by photosynthesis, plants require a chemical called

chlorophyll

Which of the following animals help to spread pollen from flower to flower

ants
flies
mice
bats

Yeasts reproduce asexually through _____, and molds reproduce asexually through _____.

budding ... spores

As a group, fungi are _____

decomposers

Fungi release digestive enzymes into their _____.

surroundings

asidia produce spores by a process known as _____.

meiosis

Which of the following represents a case of an opportunistic fungal pathogen?

A common mold called Aspergillus can cause severe respiratory and systemic infections in people with HIV.

Many people see some fungi as dangerous pathogens or destroyers of crops and food. Which of the following claims concerning the beneficial nature of fungi is true?

Healthy plants and forests could not be sustained without mycorrhizal fungi and fungal decomposition.

Which correctly pairs a challenge to living on land with the relevant plant adaptation

water loss ... cuticle

Ferns have vascular tissue, an adaptation to life on land, but they have an ancestral reproductive trait that tends to limit them to moist habitats. What is it

flagellated sperm

Pine trees and other gymnosperms have _____ but not _____, which is/are present only in angiosperms

seeds ... fruit

Four Challenges of Living on Land

1. Maintaining moisture
2. Obtaining resources
3.Being able to support itself
4. Reproducing

Cuticle

a waxy layer on surface of leaves and stems that prevents drying out in air

Stomata

tiny pores on the leaf surface which allow exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

xylem

vessels that conduct water from the roots upward

Phloem

Vessels that conduct sugars from leaves to other parts of the plant

lignin

a substance that makes cell walls rigid

gametangia

where plants produce sperm and eggs in protective shells

spores

reproductive cells that can develop into another organism without fusing with another cell.

vascular plants include

seedless plants (ferns, club mosses)
seed forming plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms)

Nonvascular Plants

produce spores, lack true root, stems, and leaves (moss, liverwort, hornwort)

Ferns

Have well-developed roots and rigid stems, which means they can grow much taller than mosses.
Are most diverse in tropical regions. Have flagellated sperm, and so need water to swim to the egg for fertilization (just like mosses).

Gymnosperms

Gymno means naked; sperm means seed. These seeds are not enclosed within a fruit, but lie "naked" on the scales of cones.

Seeds

are an important adaptation for life on land. They can lie dormant for years until conditions are favorable for germination.

Gymnosperms include all

conifers (evergreens) such as pines, spruces, firs, and hemlocks, as well as cycads and ginkgoes

Conifers

All reproductive stages of a conifer are housed in a cone! example Redwood Blue spruce Cedar

Seed Plants: Angiosperms

The most successful (and most colorful!) type of plants on earth. Includes all flowering plants. All have a dominant sporophyte generation - the plant itself.The flower houses the gametophytes.

Angiosperm seeds

are enclosed in a fruit -

stamen

male part of the flower; made up of an anther and a filament

anther

pollen producing structure located at the tip of a flower's stamen

carpel

The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.

stigma

part of the carpel that traps pollen

style

(botany) the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma

ovary

flower part that enlarges to become the fruit

Angiosperm Reproduction 1

A flower has a carpel at its center with an ovary at the base

Angiosperm Reproduction 2

Ovules inside the ovary contain spores which develop into female gametophytes to produce the eggs

Angiosperm Reproduction 3

Pollen grains from the anthers can land on the stigma and grow a pollen tube down to the ovule, where a sperm can fertilize the egg, producing a zygote

Angiosperm Reproduction 4

Pollination occurs when pollen sticks to the stigma, either blown there by the wind or delivered by an animal pollinator.

Angiosperm Reproduction 5

A pollen tube grows toward the ovule in the ovary, carrying 2 sperm cells that were held in the pollen grain.

Angiosperm Reproduction 6

Fertilization occurs when the sperm enter the ovule

Angiosperm Reproduction 7

One sperm fertilizes the egg cell, forming a diploid (2n) embryo.

Angiosperm Reproduction 8

The other sperm joins with other cells in the ovule to produce the endosperm, a source of stored food for the embryo.

Why make fruits?

Plants go to all the trouble of making fruits in order to be sure their kids leave home! seeds must be dispersed away from the parent plant so there is less competition for resources like water, soil minerals, and light.

Terminal bud

located at the tip of stem where new growth occurs in the spring

Axillary (lateral) bud

Location of lateral growth of a stem

Petiole

Attaches the leaf to the stem

Vascular Cambium

Layer in woody plants that produces xylem and phloem

Fungi are actually heterotrophic organisms, but they don't "eat" or ingest their food like animals do. Instead...

they secrete enzymes to digest their food outside their bodies and then absorb the small nutrient molecules into their cells!

hyphae

the branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of Multicellular fungi

mycelium

Many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi

Fungi can reproduce either asexually

When food and moisture are plentiful, fungi reproduce asexually, producing haploid spores.

Or sexually

When conditions become unfavorable, most fungi can reproduce sexually. The nuclei of adjoining hyphae fuse to form diploid zygotes, which undergo meiosis to form durable haploid spores.

A yeast

is a single-celled fungus that reproduces asexually by mitosis or by budding

Chytrids

These are the only fungi with flagellated spores and are common on lakes, ponds, and soil.
Some are decomposers, while others are parasitic on protists, plants, and animals.

Zygomycetes

These fungi include fast-growing molds such as black bread mold and molds that rot fruits and vegetables. Many of the preservatives added to prepared foods discourage growth of these fungi.

Glomeromycetes

These fungi form mutually beneficial symbiotic partnerships with plants.

Ascomycetes

This diverse group of "sac fungi" produce spores in saclike structures called asci.
They include unicellular yeasts, morels and cup fungi

Basidiomycetes

These fungi produce spores at the ends of club-like structures called basidia. This is the most familiar fungal group, and includes mushrooms, puffballs, and the shelf fungi that grow on rotting logs.

The Mushroom Life Cycle has 3 Stages:

1. heterokaryotic (fruiting body)
2. diploid
3. haploid
Each diploid zygote produces spores

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