ch 20 animals

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chapter 20 animals pearson biology campbell

Compact, complex animals have internal exchange surfaces that are extensively branched or folded, providing a large

surface area

In the digestive system nutrients are

absorbed across the many fingerlike projections of the lining of the intestine

in the respiratory system

oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged across the epithelial linings of sacs at the tips of tiny air tubes

in the urinary system

wastes are removed from the blood across the epithelial linings of excretory tubes.

The circulatory system

transports materials between the exchange surfaces of the other organ systems and body cells

Body cells are bathed in interstitial fluid, and exchange

body cells and the blood takes place through this fluid

Tissues

groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function

organs

groups of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism.

organ system

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

compact, complex animals have specialized internal

exchange surfaces that provide a large surface area

The protective covering of the body is called the

integumentary system

Homeostatis

is the regulation of internal conditions w/i a range that supports life's processes

Most of the control mechanisms that maintain an internal steady state are based on

negative feedback in which a change in variable triggers mechanisms that reverse that change

Which of the following is an organizational level that encompasses many organ systems working together?

organisms

What are the four major categories of tissues?

nervous, epithelial, connective, and muscle

Epithelial tissue is involved in _____.

interior lining of blood vessels

Muscle cells contract. This is possible because of _____.

contractile proteins

Voluntary body movements involve _____.

skeletal muscle

Which of the following is the primary function of the nervous tissue?

rapid communication of signals

Homeostasis is the _____.

maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment

What type of epithelium would you expect to find covering a surface subject to physical forces?

stratified epithelium

What type of epithelial tissue, found in the intestines, absorbs nutrients?

simple columnar epithelium

Which of these tissues, found in the lungs, permits gas exchange by diffusion?

simple squamous epithelium

What type of epithelial tissue lines kidney tubules?

simple cuboidal cells

The type of epithelium that lines the inside of your cheeks (within your mouth) is _____.

stratified squamous epithelium

How does connective tissue differ from the other three major tissue types?

Connective tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.

Which of these describes loose connective tissue?

It is a loose weave of fibers that functions as a packing material.

Cartilage is found _____.

at the ends of bones such as the femur

blood

_____ is the connective tissue specialized for transport.

What type of muscle is responsible for contractions of the digestive tract and arteries?

smooth muscle

Cardiac muscle is the only muscle composed of _____ fibers.

branched

skeletal

_____ muscle is attached to bones.

Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by _____, which are made of _____.

tendons ... fibrous connective tissue

A neuron consists of _____.

dendrites, a cell body, and axons

Nervous tissue functions _____.

to sense stimuli

Which of the following tissues is responsible for food absorption in the small intestines?

columnar epithelium

Severe burn victims often receive artificial skin grafts. Why?

Skin normally provides a protective barrier between the body and infectious microorganisms in the environment.

Which organ system regulates the water balance of the blood?

excretory system

A physician wishes to assess the metabolic activity of a patient's brain. Which imaging technique should she choose?

PET scan

In addition to the integrity of the integumentary system, what other component of the skin protects against bacterial infection?

oil gland

The goal of homeostasis is the _____.

maintenance of internal conditions within a limited range

If blood sugar is under homeostatic control using negative feedback, what will happen if blood sugar levels drop between meals?

Blood sugar will begin to rise until it reaches an appropriate value.

Which of the following is a correct match of cell type with structure

muscle cell ... has proteins that slide back and forth

cells

__________ are the fundamental units of life.

Which of the following options lists the structural elements of organisms in the correct order, from smallest to largest?

cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms

The heart is an example of a(n) ___________

organ

The heart pumps blood through blood vessels to reach all areas of the body. Together, the heart and blood vessels form a(n) __________.

organ system

What aspect of a bird's wings would be most interesting to a physiologist?

role of feather barbs in flight

In terms of hierarchy of organization, organs fall between _____ and _____.

tissues ... organ systems

Anatomy

the study of the physical structural features of the organism

Physiology

the study of the functions of body parts

A tissue

is a group of similar cells which have a particular structure and work together to carry out a specific job.

Epithelial tissue:

covers the body surface and lines internal organs and cavities

Connective tissue:

binds different tissues and provides support through an extracellular matrix

Muscle tissue :

contracts for movement

Nervous tissue:

communicates among body parts

Simple squamous epithelium

is only one cell layer thick, permitting gases to diffuse between the blood and the lungs.

Simple cuboidal epithelium

is also one cell layer thick, forming tiny tubules that allow the blood to be easily filtered in the kidneys.

Simple columnar epithelium

has a single layer of elongated cells that are specialized for absorption of nutrients in the intestine.

Stratified squamous epithelium

has several layers of cells. It is located wherever the body needs protection from abrasion, like inside your esophagus or the surface of your skin.

Pseudostratified squamous epithelium

secretes mucus to trap pathogens and debris before they can enter your lungs, and has cilia to sweep them upward and out of your respiratory tract.

a matrix

consisting of a web of fibers embedded in either a liquid, jelly, or solid, depending on the type of connective tissue.

Loose connective tissue,

the most common type in the human body, binds skin to underlying muscles and holds internal organs and tissues in place. has both tough collagen fibers and stretchy elastic fibers

Fibrous connective tissue

is made of long tough parallel fibers that resist stretching—useful for tendons and ligaments!

Adipose tissue

is specialized to store fat. It cushions internal organs, provides insulation, and acts as the body's energy reserve

Cartilage

is smooth and slippery. It covers the ends of bones, allowing them to slide past each other when you move your joints.

Bone tissue

provides strength and support. It also acts as a calcium and phosphorus "bank," storing these minerals until the body "withdraws" them as needed.

Blood

is a liquid connective tissue that transports substances like oxygen and nutrients to the cells that need them, and carries away carbon dioxide and other wastes.

Skeletal muscle

is attached to bones. It is made of long parallel cylindrical cells. It is voluntary—that is, you can choose to contract it or not.

Cardiac muscle

is made of branched, interconnected cells that can communicate with each other. It is involuntary—you can't consciously control its contraction.

Smooth muscle

is made of spindle-shaped cells that also communicate with each other. It also contracts involuntarily, to move substances through the body—like in the intestine.

nervous tissue

tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response

damaged tissue

When a tissue is injured, the body replaces the damaged tissue by mitosis (except in types like cartilage and cardiac muscle, which do not regenerate).

Organ

Several tissues working together to carry out specific functions

Organ Systems

Several organs can be integrated to work together as an organ system.

Circulatory System

Transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells.
Transports carbon dioxide and wastes away from the cells for excretion

Respiratory System

Exchanges gases with the environment.
Supplies blood with oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide.

Integumentary System

Protects against mechanical injury, infection, excessive heat or cold, and drying out.

Skeletal System

Supports the body.
Protects certain internal organs, such as the brain and lungs.
Provides the framework for muscles to produce movement.

Muscular System

Skeletal muscles produce movement, maintain posture, and produce heat.

Urinary System

Removes nitrogen-containing waste products from the blood.
Regulates the chemical makeup and water balance of the blood.

Digestive System

Ingests and breaks down food into smaller chemical units to be used as fuel for cellular respiration.
Eliminates undigested material.

Endocrine System

Secretes hormones that regulate body activities such as digestion, metabolism, growth, reproduction, heart rate, and water balance.

Lymphatic and Immune Systems

Returns excess body fluid to the circulatory system.
Defends the body against infections and cancer.

Nervous System

Coordinates body activities by detecting stimuli, integrating information, and directing the body's responses.

Reproductive Systems

Produce gametes and sex hormones.
Female system includes organs to support a developing embryo and glands for producing milk.

CT (computed tomography)

Useful as a diagnostic tool- for example, for detecting brain hemorrhage, tumors, heart defects, or blocked blood vessels.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

Useful for observing soft tissue, especially if surrounded by bone.

MRM (magnetic resonance microscopy)

Useful in studying the development of embryonic organ systems.

PET (positron-emission tomography)

PET scans can be used to study diseases affecting the brain such as stroke, Alzheimer's, and epilepsy.

Homeostasis

Despite large fluctuations in external environment (for example, temperature extremes), homeostatic mechanisms regulate an animal's internal environment, resulting in much smaller fluctuations.

Negative Feedback

Most of the control mechanism of homeostasis are based on negative feedback, in which a change in a variable, such as temperature, triggers mechanisms that reverse the change.

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