Ch. 3 Second Language Acquisition

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tense

a binary system that consists of present or past

aspect

a binary system that classifies actions as perfective(complete) or imperfective(incomplete)

coordination

the joining of two or more elements of the same linguistic value by means of a coordinating conjunction

subordination

the insertion or embedding of one independent clause into another independent clause by means of a subordinating conjunction

displacement

speakers can use language to talk about entities or events that are not actually present in the environment; distinguishes humans from animals

case system

way grammar functions in a sentence

inflection

grammatical suffix

phonology

branch of linguistics that studies significant sounds of a language systematically and scientifically

morphology

branch of linguistics that studies the structural changes in words (prefixes, suffixes, infixes, etc)

syntax

the branch of linguistics that studies sentence formation and word order

semantics

the branch of linguistics that studies words and sentence meanings and implications of utterances

phonology

branch of linguistics that studies significant sounds of a language systematically and scientifically

phoneme

any significant sound of a language/the idealization of a sound

allophone

true articulation of the phoneme; the way the sound really sounds in relation to its phonetic environment

point of articulation assimilation

the presence of one sound influences the articulation of a neighboring sound

elision

the omission of a sound in a word that would otherwise be present if the word were pronounced clearly and distinctly

liaison

the joining of words across word boundaries

morpheme

the smallest significant unit of meaning in a word that combines with other smaller significant units to create more complex words

allomorphes

two or more morphemes that have the same abstract meaning but are not interchangeable

complementary distribution

the idea that allomorphes are not interchangeable

minimal pair

two or more linguistic units that are exactly alike in all but one feature

free morphemes

independent morphemes that do not need other morphemes to appear and can stand alone

bound morphemes

dependent morphemes that never represent complete words and have to affix themselves to other morphemes in order to appear

inflectional morphemes

always suffixes that communicate grammatical information

derivational morphemes

can be prefixes and suffixes and they communicate semantic or lexical information

bull's tripartile system of verbal analysis

william bull in 1965 discovered the three segments of verb conjugation, lexical/semantic info, tense mood and aspect, person and number

semantics

the branch of linguistics that deals with the description of word and sentence meaning

derivation

the joining of afixes to create new words

coinage

the invention of new words as a result of new technology

blending

the mixing or joining of two words

apocope

shortening/clipping of words

error by analogy

making irregular forms regular

syntax

the branch of linguistics that deals with sentence structure and word order

sentence diagram

pictorial representation of the grammatical structure of a sentence in a natural language

linguistics

the study of language development, structure, sound and meaning

descriptive linguistics

describes how a language is used

prescriptive linguistics

prescribes the rules of language and how language should be used

diachronic linguistics

study of language change over time

synchronic linguistics

study of language at one particular slice in time

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