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The right side of the heart pumps blood through vessels to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart through the __________ circulation.

Pulmonary Circulation

The left side of the heart pumps blood through the __________ circulation, which delivers oxygen and nutrients to all the remaining tissues of the body.

Systemic Circulation

Which of the following is a CORRECT order of blood flow through the heart?1 - right atrium
2 - left atrium
3 - right ventricle
4 - left ventricle
5 - vena cava
6 - pulmonary artery
7 - pulmonary vein
8 - tricuspid AV valve
9 - bicuspid (mitral) AV valve
10 - pulmonary valve
11 - aortic valve
12 - aorta

5, 1, 8, 3, 10, 6, 7, 2, 9, 4, 11, 12

When blood is flowing out of the left ventricle the bicuspid valve is __________ and the aortic semilunar
valve is __________.

closed; open

When blood is flowing into the left ventricle the bicuspid valve is __________ and the aortic
semilunar valve is __________.

open; closed

What happens in each 5 phases of cardiac muscle?

1. Depolarization- Voltage gated sodium channels open
2. Initial Re-polarization- Sodium channels close and loss of potassium.
3. Plateau- Calcium channels open and calcium rushes in and neutralizes the effect of outgoing potassium.
4. Final Re-polarization- calcium channels close and loss of potassium continues
5. RMP- Cell returns to resting membrane potential

During the depolarization phase of cardiac muscle

voltage-gated sodium channels open.

During the early repolarization and plateau phases of cardiac muscle

voltage-gate potassium channels open.

During the final repolarization phase of cardiac muscle

voltage-gated calcium channels are closed.

During __________ all of the valves are closed as pressure builds in the ventricles.

the period of isovolumetric contraction

During __________ all of the valves are closed as ventricles begin diastole.

the period of isovolumetric relaxation

In the heart, an action potential originates in the

sinoatrial node.

The sequence of travel by an action potential through the heart is

sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers.

Which of the following is true concerning the heart conduction system?

action potentials pass slowly through the atrioventricular node

In the ventricles, the action potential travels along the interventricular septum to the apex of the heart, where it then spreads superiorly along the ventricle walls.

True

Action potentials are carried by the Purkinje fibers from the bundle branches to the ventricular walls.

True

Which of the following is not true for ventricular systole?

the ventricles relax

The semilunar valves close during

ventricular diastole.

The atrioventricular valves open during

ventricular diastole.

Atrial contraction accounts for most of the ventricular filling.

False

The ventricles begin to fill during ventricular diastole.

False

Increased sympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation, bringing elevated blood pressure back to normal.

False

Heart rate and stroke volume decrease under decreased parasympathetic stimulation.

False

Baroreceptors are located...

in the aorta and carotid arteries.

Action potentials are conducted from the baroreceptors to the brain via...

the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves.

The action potential from the brain to the heart travels along...

the vagus nerve.

Chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies detect all of the following except...

blood pressure

Chemoreceptors are also located in the...

medulla oblongata.

Which of the following will not increase the heart rate?

increased blood pressure

Increased sympathetic stimulation causes increased heart rate and stroke volume.

True

Chemoreceptors in the hypothalamus monitor blood carbon dioxide and pH.

False

1. Contractions of the heart generate blood pressure, which is responsible for moving blood through the blood vessels.

True

2. The heart separates the pulmonary and systemic circulations and ensures better oxygenation of the blood flowing to the tissues.

True

3. The valves of the heart allow blood to flow in different directions through the heart based upon the pressure differences from the pulmonary and systemic circulations.

False

4. The rate and force of heart contractions change to meet the metabolic needs of the tissues which can vary based on different conditions.

True

The epicardium is also known as the __________ pericardium.

Visceral

Inferior and superior vena cava

Right Atrium

Pulmonary Trunk

Right Ventricle

Pulmonary Veins

Left Atrium

Aorta

Left Ventricle

The __________ has four relatively uniform openings that receive blood from the four pulmonary veins from the lungs.

Left Atrium

The resting membrane potential of cardiac muscle cells depends on a low permeability of the plasma membrane to sodium and potassium and a higher permeability to calcium.

False

Action potentials in cardiac muscle last longer than those in skeletal muscle.

True

In skeletal muscle there is a plateau phase, a period of slow repolarization, that is not found in cardiac muscle.

True

The heart is said to be __________ because it stimulates itself to contract at regular intervals.

autorhytmic

The generation of action potentials in the SA node results when a spontaneously developing local potential, called the __________ potential, reaches threshold.

Pacemaker

An __________ focus is any part of the heart other than the SA node that generates a heartbeat.

Ectopic focus

Cardiac muscle has refractory periods, during the relative refractory period, the cell is completely insensitive to further stimulation.

False

The plateau phase of the action potential in cardiac muscle delays repolarization to the resting membrane potential therefore the refractory period is prolonged.

True

P wave

Atrial depolarization

QRS complex

Ventricle depolarization

T wave

Ventricle re-polarization

PQ (PR) interval

...

QT interval

...

The __________ is a low-pitched sound caused by vibration of the atrioventricular valves and surrounding fluid as the valves close at the beginning of ventricular systole.

first heart sound

The __________ is a higher-pitched sound resulting from closure of the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves, at the beginning of ventricular diastole.

Second sound

Mean arterial pressure

CO X PR

Cardiac output

HR X SV

Peripheral resistance

Total force against which the blood must be pumped

Heart rate

Heart beats/minutes

Stroke volume

EDV - ESV

The regulatory mechanism that controls cardiac output from the heart's normal functional characteristics and does not depend on neural or hormonal regulation is __________ regulation.

Intrinsic

In __________ regulation neural and hormonal control mechanisms assist in controlling the cardiac output.

Extrinsic

When blood pH increases

blood carbon dioxide levels increase.

When blood pressure increases

baroreceptors detect the change in the carotid arteries.

Excess potassium ions in cardiac tissue will cause the heart rate and stroke volume to __________.

decrease

A reduction in extracellular potassium ions causes the resting membrane potential to become __________; as a consequence, it takes longer for the membrane to depolarize to threshold.

Active

A rise in the extracellular concentration of __________ produces greater force of cardiac contraction because of more of these ions move into the sarcoplasm during action potential generation.

...

Increased sympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation, bringing elevated blood pressure back to normal.

False

Heart rate and stroke volume decrease under decreased parasympathetic stimulation.

False

Baroreceptors are located in the aorta and

Carotid arteries

Oxygen-poor blood enters which chamber of the heart?

Right atrium

The right atrioventricular valve is also called the

Tricuspid valve

The only arteries in the body that carry oxygen-poor blood are the coronary arteries.

False

Left ventricular contraction propels blood through which valve?

aortic valve

How many pulmonary veins are there?

four

The P wave on the ECG represents atrial depolarization.

True

The semilunar valves are closed during

Ventricle diastole

The electrical impulses that create the QRS complex represent

Ventricle depolarization

Each cardiac cycle takes about 8/10 of one

minute

Ventricular systole is represented by the T wave on an ECG.

False

Increased sympathetic stimulation causes increased heart rate and stroke volume.

True

Chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies detect all of the following except

Blood pressure

Which of the following will not increase the heart rate?

Increase blood pressure

Chemoreceptors are also located in the

medulla oblongata

Action potentials are carried by the Purkinje fibers from the bundle branches to the ventricular walls.

True

The action potential travels along the interventricular septum to the apex of the heart, where it then spreads superiorly along the ventricular walls.

True

The sequence of travel by an action potential through the heart is:

sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers.

In the heart, an action potential originates in the

sinoatrial node

Pulmonary veins enter the

Left atrium

The pulmonary veins contain oxygenated blood.

True

Oxygen leaves the blood and carbon dioxide enters the blood in the

lungs

The aortic arch gives off branches that supply all of the following areas of the body, except the

abdomen

Which chamber receives blood returning from the lungs?

Left atrium

What are the muscular ridges within the ventricles called?

Trabecule carneae

What ensures the movement of blood in one direction through the heart?

Valves

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