What kind of parasite is a virus?
Obligate intracellular parasite
What parts of the body do most viruses effect?
Respiratory and GI
What is the typical duration of a virus?
What is the typical time for the acute infection of a virus?
What are three viruses that will never go away once someone has contracted it?
HIV, Heb B, Hep C
What does the HIV virus bind to that makes the patient susceptible to secondary infections?
CD 4 on Helper T cells (no directions are given to other WBC)
What is a complete virus (capsid and core) called?
What makes up the core of a virus?
Nucleic acid - DNA or RNA in any form (single, double, fragmented)
What makes up the capsid of the virus?
What is the protein coat of a virus called?
What are the two shapes of viruses?
Polyhedral and helical
What is the name of the 20 equilateral triangles that make up most polyhedral viruses?
What part of the virus do the shapes Polyhedral and helical refer to?
What is a complex virus?
What is an example of a complex virus?
What shape do most bacteriaphages have?
Cylindrical, polyhedral head and extra parts
How do viruses that are enveloped helical viruses obtain their envelope?
when leaving the host cell they obtain it
What are the spikes on an enveloped helical virus for and what are they made of?
For attachment and detachment, made of Protein and glycoproteins
What is an additional function of the spikes on an enveloped helical virus besides attachment and detachment?
Agglutination - clumping of the hosts cells
What does the H in H1N1 stand for?
Hemaglutinin (for attachment)
What does the N in H1N1 stand for?
What parts of an enveloped helical virus can change?
The spikes and the DNA
What are some ways that we are able to study viruses?
Human tissue samples
HeLa - Cancerous cells used from 1950's
What is the host range of a virus?
The host's tissues being targeted
What is the stages of the Lytic cycle?
What is the most ineffective phase of the Lytic cycle?
The maturation phase
What phase of the Lytic cycle requires the use of the lysozyme?
Insertion (ONLY FOR BACTERIOPHAGES INFECTING BACTERIA)
What phase of the Lytic cycle requires the host making the viruses parts and chopping up the viruses DNA?
What phase of the Lytic cycle requires putting all the parts together?
Which cycle results in the cell's death, Lytic or Lysogenic?
What phase of the Lytic cycle is when the virus leaves and goes from cell to cell to cell?
How does the virus exit a cell for release in the Lytic cycle?
They require the lysozyme again
What is the period of time between the infection and the virion completion?
What is the term for studying viruses in a petri dish or in a cell culture?
One step experiment
What is the name of the time until a virus leaves a cell?
What is the term for the number of virions that leave a cell?
Which cycle for viruses is termed temperate or mild?
What occurs to the genetic material of a cell when it is invaded during a lysogenic cycle?
Genetic recombination (viral nucleic acid incorporates into host genome)
What is the viruses called once its nucleic acid has invaded a bacteria's genome during the lysogenic cycle?
What is a cell called once it has been invaded during the lysogenic cycle and its genome has been invaded by the viruses nucleic acid and the cell remains inactive?
Latent prophage (person could be asymptomatic)
What are the three results of Lysogenic infection?
1. Immunity to reinfection by the exact same virus
2. Phage conversion
3. Specialized transduction
What are some examples of bacteria that require phage conversion to be effective?
What result of Lysogenic infection results in the host cell being converted by the phage's DNA?
What is a result of lysogenic infection that results in a genetic transfer?
Specialized transduction (host cell is changed because it acquired the bacterial genes carried from the virus)
What can cause a latent prophage to "pop out"?
UV light or certain chemicals
What is something different about animal cells compared to bacteria?
No cell wall
What is it called when a virus enters a cell?
What is it called when a virus leaves a cell?
What happens to the viruses envelope during endocytosis?
Leaves it behind
What happens to the viruses envelope during exocytosis?
Creates the envelope by taking some of the host's cell membrane with it
Does the cell die during exocytosis?
No, it survives usually
What happens to the capsid when a virus enters a cell?
Uncoating (unique to Eukaryotes)
What is the stage during viral replication in Eukaryotes when the virus uses the hosts cell's organelles to make more core and capsid?
What does the virus turn the host cells' RNA polymerace into?
Transcriptase (same thing, just different name)
What are the early genes of the virus?
The ones that have to do with replication of the core
What are the late genes of the virus?
The ones that have to do with replication of the capsid
What is the reverse transcriptase?
The host cell's DNA polymerase
What are two examples of viruses that are retro?
Hep B and HIV
What kind of virus is HIV, RNA or DNA?
What kind of virus is Hep B, RNA or DNA?
What kind of virus is Hep A, RNA or DNA?
What kind of virus is Hep C, RNA or DNA?
What is the virus called once it has recombined into the hosts genome?
What is something unique about RNA in viruses?
They can have additional + and - strands, called sense and antisense strands
What are the 3 functions of RNA + strands?
1. Can serve as mRNA
2. Can serve as core in newly created virus
3. serve as a template to make more core
What is the function of - RNA strands?
Serve as a template to make + strands
What is a respiratory virus that is double stranded?
What is a the family of viruses that Papilloma and Polyoma's are a part of?
What are the two viruses that are in the Papovaviridae?
Papilloma and Polyoma
What virus attaches to a nerve cell and is latent?
What are the first three herpes viruses names and causes?
1. HHV1/HSV1 - fever blisters/cold sores
2. HHV2/HSV2 - Genital herpes
3. HHV3/HSV3 - Varicella - Zoster
Herpes - Zoster
Chicken pox - shingles
What are the 4th-8th herpes viruses?
4. HHV4 - (Mono) Lymphocrypto virus
Epstein Barr Virus
> Burkitts Lymphoma (jaw cancer)
>Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (nose and throat cancer)
5. HHV5 - CMV (Cytomeglia Virus)
6. HHV6 - Roseola
7. HHV7 - Roseola
8. HHV8 - Kaposis Sarcoma (cancer - HIV patients are prone to getting)
What is the name of small and cow pox?
What is a unique feature of poxviridae?
Make their own transcriptase
What is the family of Hep B?
Where is Hep A transmitted from?
Shellfish (will go away)
What makes Hep C concerning as far as its ability to be stable in O2?
Transmission through respiration
What are the cancer causing viruses called?
What family of viruses does HIV belong to?
What family of viruses does 5th disease belong to?
What is the term for a viruses effect on a cell?
CPE - Cytopathic effect
What are some of the external changes that can occur to a cell after it has been infected by a virus?
1. loss of contact inhibition (cause excessive growth with no function)
2. Syncytium (fusion of the cells)
3. Permeability changes
4. Ag change (so immune either ignores cell or attacks it)
What are some of the internal changes that can occur to a cell after it has been infected by a virus?
1. Inclusion bodies
2. DNA changes
3. Changes in cellular functions
What are some important interferons?
What is the function of Alpha and Beta interferons?
They are released by infected cells to warn healthy ones so they will build intercellular antiviral proteins
What is the function of Gamma interferons?
1. Attract phagocytes
2. Keep phagocytes stationary
What is the defense mechanism the body has with healthy cells if they have been warned of infection by alpha and beta interferons?
Build intracellular antiviral proteins
What are the left over viral parts left in a cell?
What are some of the change to DNA that viruses can make?
Turn genes on and/or off and mutate the genes
What is the function of a herpes virus on a cell?
Slows down cell division, mitosis
What is the effect of polio on a cell?
Interferes with the lysosomes (the digestive enzymes in a cell)
What is the effect of measles on cells?
Interleukin passed between cells
What is a latent virus?
Someone with chicken pox - occasional outbreak
What are some viruses that build up over time?
What are viruses that have the capacity to cause cancers called?
What is a genetic change in a host cell?
What is a cell marker that alerts the host body that it no longer is functional?
What is a nuclear marker that alerts the host body that it is no longer functional?
What are viruses that attack other tumors called?
What are some ways to classify a virus?
-type of capsomeres
What is a method for studying bacteriaphages by looking at the clearings they create on a bacteria lawn?
What is used for studying viruses that allow the virus to proliferate and shows the tissues it attacks?
Why aren't animals used to study viruses?
What are the cell lines that can grow in a petri dish?
How long do cell lines from 1 last?
A few generations
How long do cell lines from 2 last?
they are diploid cells and will last 100 generations
What is an example of a continuous cell line?
HaLa (cancerous cells from the 1950's)
What is naked RNA that is only usually found in plants?
What does a plant have if it is spindly, white and/or with spotted leaves?
plant viral infection
What are some infectious proteins?
What are three examples of infectious protein diseases?
BSE (Mad Cow)
What do the prion diseases cause?
Encephalopathy (spongy brain)
What are the three main functions of the lymphatic system?
2. Pick up fats and lipid soluble vitamins and returns it to the blood (Vit A, D, E, K)
3. Pick up lost tissue fluid and returns it to the blood
What are two methods for movement of lymph?
Skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump
What is a bubble of lymph that creates movement of the lymph when the diaphram pushes on it?
What duct helps return 3/4 or 75% of the bodies lymph?
The left lymphatic duct/thoracic duct
How much lymph does the right lymphatic duct move?
What is connected to the left lymphatic/thoracic duct?
what is edema?
swelling of lost tissue fluid
where are lymph nodes located?
what is the ratio of WBC to RBC?
1 WBC/1000 RBC
what is the measurements of RBC in the blood?
what is the measurement of percentage of WBC in the blood?
what is the total number of WBCs and RBCs in the body?
CBC complete blood count
what percentage of WBCs is made up of Neutrophils?
60% - 70%
what percentage of WBCs is made up of Lymphocytes?
what percentage of WBCs does Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils make?
5% in decreasing order - M, E, B
what WBCs are the first to arrive at the site of infection?
The presence of what WBC signals a recent infection?
if there is no infection and macrophages arrive, what are two things that could happen to them?
they either die or cause an autoimmune response by attacking the healthy cells
what cells make up the Lymphocytes?
T cells, B cells and Natural Killer cells
what are two types of T cells?
T cytotoxic and T helper
what do B cells become in an immune response?
how do plasma cells attack a virus?
how do T cytotoxic cells attack a virus?
shoot cytotoxic chemicals
how do Natural Killer cells attack a virus?
shoot cytotoxic chemicals (but not as accurately as T cytotoxic cells)
where are T cells "educated"?
where are B cells produced?
red bone marrow
which WBC are involved in specific immunity?
T and B cells
what do Eosinophils attack and cause?
-a part of allergic reactions
-eat Ag/Ab complexes
-cause oxidative burst
what do basophils cause?
release of histomine
what are things that histomines will cause?
vasodilation and brochial constriction
what does it mean if a lymph node is swollen and tender?
usually an infection
what can it mean if a lymph node is swollen but not tender?
can mean a blockage or cancer
where is the spleen located?
upper left of abdomen
what is the spleen made of?
red and white pulp
what makes up the red pulp in the speen?
RBCs and platelets
why do a lot of RBCs accumulate in the spleen?
they are old and about to be destroyed but are kept there in case of major blood loss (still functional)
what analyzes an infection that enters the skin first?
what is first to analyze an infection that enters the blood?
what are the forms of non-specific defence?
physical and chemical barriers (1st line)
complement proteins (2nd line)
what are some of the physical barriers our body has to keep out pathogens?
-flushing mechanisms (includes sweat, tears, oil, vomiting, defecation, urination, and cilia)
-our own microbes
what are some of the chemical barriers our body uses to keep out pathogens?
-high salt content of our skin
-acids (in sweat oil, vaginal fluids)
-lysozymes (destroys cell membranes and is in sweat and tears, also includes IgG)
when is the Ab IgG used in non-specific defense and when is it used in specific defense?
non-specific if in body secretions
specific if in the blood
what happens during a T cells "education"?
they go through primary and secondary selection
what happens during the primary selection of T cells?
they must recognize self from non-self
what happens during secondary selection of T cells?
they must not react to self peptides
how many T cells "fail" their education?
what isq it called when T cells that have failed their education a "shot on sight"?
what is it called when failed T cells are released with a lack of ability to respond, and pose no threat?
what are cells called that show T cells chopped pieces of a germ and itself?
Ag presenting cells
What are some examples of MALT?
where are Peyers Patches found?
what is a bacteria that causes immobilization of the cilia in the respiratory system?
what vaccine is given to prevent B. Pertussis, and what protein is injected with the vaccine?
D Tap, includes acellular pertussis and the protein Tetnus
what is the second line of defense?
Antimicrobial and Complement proteins
where are the complement proteins made?
in the liver
are complement proteins active or inactive when not in use?
what are the three outcomes from the common pathway?
what is the third step in inflammation?
what is "tagging a germ" in order to be eaten by phagocytes?
what is the process of creating holes in an infected cell or germ?
what are the three initial pathways that lead to the common pathway?
what starts the Classical pathway?
Ag binding to Ab
what starts the Alternative pathway?
A polysaccharide binding to B, D, or P
what starts the Lectin pathway?
sugar (mammose) binding to lectin
What complement protein is activated in the common pathway and what happens to it?
C3 divides into C3a and C3b
what does complement protein C3 cause when it becomes C3a?
starts cascade of inflammation reaction
what does complement protein C3 cause when it becomes C3b?
Opsonization and MAC (membrane attack complex)
what complement proteins form the membrane attack complex?
what do natural killers lack that make them less accurate than T cell?
what are the two chemicals that blow up the membrane or the nucleus of a germor infected cell?
perforin and granulysins
what is a non-specific defense that will eat anything?
what is an example of general defense?
what is anything that causes a fever called?
what are the two types of specific defense?
cell mediated immunity
what WBC has the biggest role in humoral immunity?
what WBC has the biggest role in cell mediated immunity?
what are best Ag and what are the worst?
proteins are best, carbs are worst
what is it called when an Ag is taken outside a cell?
what is it called when a Ag is taken inside the cell?
what is a substance that causes reactivity but lacks immunogenicity?
what do haptens have to attach to "be noticed"?
proteins or amino acids
what are proteins that cause production of Ab called?
what is the process of building up Ab called?
what a some examples different Ab classes?
IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE
what is a Ab class is found mainly on B cells?
what is it called when B cells clone themselves into a plasma cell and a Ab?
what is a test to determine what aperson is immune to?
what are the four different types of immunity?
what is an example of active natural immunity?
get a disease and immune fights it off
what is an example of active artificial immunity?
what is an example of natural passive immunity?
IgG from placenta and breast milk
what is an example of artifical passive?
get the Ab injected (anti-snake venom)
What are some other names for Antibodies?
Immunoglobulins (Ig) and Gamma Globulin Glycoproteins (GGGP)
What does an Ab consist of?
Monomer (a protein with different chains)
What are the two chains of the Ab monomer?
Heavy and Light chain
How many AA are in the light chain and the heavy chain?
Light chain - 200 AA
Heavy chain - 400 AA
What are the Ag binding sites on a Ab monomer?
What are the bonds that create flexibility on a monomer?
What part of the Monomer determines the class of the Ab?
Constant region of the heavy chain only
Where can the AA sequences change on a monomer of Ab?
The variable sites
What class of Ab is a pentamere?
What class of Ab is a dimer in body secretions and a monomer in the blood stream?
What three classes of Ab are all monomers?
Whare the functions of IgM?
-First to arrive at the site of infection
-Fixes (stimulates) complements
What Ab class is most abundant in the blood? In the body?
IgG - most abundant in the blood or serum
What is the main B cell activator?
IgD (IgM can also be on the cell)
What are the functions of IgG?
-Activates natural killer cells
-Most abundant in blood stream
-Primary Ab in secondary exposure to Ag "Desensitizing"
What are the functions of IgE?
-Responds to lysis of parasitic worms
What are the two cells that cause degranulation?
Mast Cells and Basophils
What type of immunity is used when a more specific response is needed?
Cell Mediated Immunity
What are the three APC?
1. Dendritic cells
3. B cells
WHat are responsible for "chopping" up the microorganism
What is the "part" of themselves that APC present along with the Ag?
MHC II antigen complex
WHat are the chemicals that APC use to costimulate the T cells?
What do IL1 tell T cells?
Tells the T helper cells to go clone themselves
What is different about the clones of the T helper cells?
Have receptors that match the complex better
What do T helper cells release?
IL2 which is autocrine and paracrine costimulation
What T cell has CD 4?
What T cell has CD 8?
What are T m cells?
Memory T cells
What are T d cells?
Delayed hypersensitivity T cells
What are T s cells?
Supressor T cells
What are two chemicals that T cells release?
Perforin - Pokes holes in CM or CW
Lymphotoxin - blows up nucleus
Gamma Interferons (G-IFN) - elicit the phagocytes
What is the first to respond in a secondary response?
What are severe allergies called?
Hypersensativity *upon second exposure to Ag
What is an altered immune response to the second exposure to an Ag?
What can Acute hypersensativity result in?
What is anaphalaxis?
Extreme vasodilation where blood moves away from the heart
What causes vasoconstiction and keeps blood near the heart and
Where are delayed hypersensativity responses usually found?
Outside the body
What are some things that can trigger delayed hypersensativity?
What are the four types of autoimmune responses?
3. Immune complex
What type of autoimmunity is Lupus?
Type 3 - Immune Complex
What is the role of IgA?
Neutralizes (prevents them from going into the blood stream) **ALSO MOST PREVELENT OUTSIDE/INSIDE BODY