AH1-Endocrinology

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acromegaly

enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face

Addison disease

occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone. A decrease in corticosteroid secretion

adenohypophysis...,

the anterior lobe of the pituitary body

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids from adrenal cortex.

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules to maintain water balance in the body fluids.

corticosteroids

steroid produced by the cortices of the adrenal glands, cortisol. Promotes sodium retention & potassium excretion.

cretinism

severe hypothyroidism in children resulting in physical and mental stunting

Cushing syndrome

an increase in corticosteroid secretion, caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol

diabetes insipidus

deficiency of ADH, large amounts of water are excreted by the kidneys, leading to severe fluid volume deficit and electrolyte imbalances.

endocrine

ductless glands that produce internal secretions that flow to all parts of the body.

gigantism

excessive growth during childhood

glucocorticoids

influenced by ACTH, released from pituitary gland, helps body resist long-term stressors; increases blood glucose levels; controls effects of inflammation from edema

Graves disease

is the most common type of hyperthyroidism caused by hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by a rapid pulse (tachycardia), palpitations, excessive perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, irritability, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), and weight loss.

hyperthyroidism

is an increase in circulating T4 and T3 levels, which results from an overactive thyroid gland or excessive output of thyroid hormones from one or more thyroid nodules.

hypophysis

the master gland (pituitary) of the endocrine system. has an anterior and posterior lobe.

hypothryoidism

a decrease in thyroid hormone secretion, can have either a primary cause (thyroid gland disorder) or a secondary cause (lack of TSH secretion). Primary hypothyroidism occurs more frequently.

mineralocorticiods

low blood sodium or low vascular volume stimulates the adrenal cortes to secrete. e.g. fludrocortisone (Florinef) and aminoglutethimide (Cytadren)

myxedema

is severe hypothyroidism in the adult; symptoms include lethargy, apathy, memory impairment, emotional changes, slow speech, deep coarse voice, edema of the eyelids and face, thick dry skin, cold intolerance, slow pulse, constipation, weight gain, and abnormal menses.

neurohypophysis

the posterior lobe of the pituitary body

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

secreted from the parathyroid gland, a hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood

thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH)

the adenohypophysis (anterior Pituitary) secretes this and in response it secretes throxine- T4 and triodothyronine- T3.

thyrotoxicosis

same as Grave's disease, a condition that results from overproduction of the thyroid gland

thyroxine

T4, hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells

triiodthyronine

T3, a thyroid hormone, 20% is from the thyroid and 80% comes from degradation of 40% of T4. Regulates protein synthesis and enzyme activity.

List the major organs of the endocrine system:

* Hypothalamus
* Pituitary
* Thyroid
* Parathyroids
* Adrenals
* Pancreas
* Ovaries
* Testes

Functions of the endocrine system:

* Organs produce hormones secreted into blood that act on body organs
* Works with nervous system to regulate body functions
* Hormones regulate body activities
* Minor alterations can cause major organ dysfunction, disease, death

Hypothalamic hormones

* Corticotropin-releasing hormone
* Growth hormone-releasing factor
* Growth hormone inhibiting factor
* Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
* Prolactin-releasing factor
* Prolactin inhibiting factor

Pituitary hormones

* Corticotropin
* Growth hormone
* Thyrotropin
* FSH
* LH
* Prolactin
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Corticotropin

Stimulates adrenal cortex to produce adrenocorticosteroids

Growth hormone

Stimulates growth of body tissue

Thyrotropin

Regulates secretion of thyroid hormones

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Stimulates function of sex glands

Luteinizing hormone

Stimulates hormone production by gonads of both sexes

Prolactin

Helps in milk production in nursing mothers

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Helps with skin pigmentation

Functions of the pituitary gland

Stores & releases 2 hormones made by nerve cells in the hypothalamus:
* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates water balance
* Oxytocin functions in childbirth & lactation

The relationship between the hypothalamus & the pituitary glands:

These glands control metabolic funcitons of the body & maintain homeostasis
* Hypothalamus controls pituitary secretion
* Pituitary has an anterior & posterior portion

Anterior pituitary

This part of pituitary gland synthesizes & secretes different hormones

Posterior pituitary

This part of the pituitary gland stores & releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus: oxytocin, ADH

Gonadorelin hydrochloride (Factrel), Nafarelin (Synarel)

These hormones are used to induce ovulation w/ hypothalmic amenorrhea & to diagnose tests of gonadotropic functions of the anterior pituitary

Nafarelin (Synarel)

This hormone is used in the treatment of endometriosis

Octreotide (Sandostatin)

This hormone is used in the treatment of acromegaly

Protirelin (Thypinone)

This hormone is used for diagnosing thyroid, pituitary, & hypothalamic function

Cosyntropin (Cortrosyn)

This hormone is used in diagnosing adrenal insufficiency.

Somatrem

This hormone used in children with impaired growth by deficiency of endogenous growth hormone.

Menotropin (Pergonal)

This hormone is used in combo with HCG for treating infertility caused by lack of pituitary gonadotropins.

Thyrotropin (Thytropar)

This hormone is used for distingishing b/w primary & secondary hypothyroidism

Lypressin

This hormone is used for control of excessive water loss in diabetes insipidus.

Vasopressin (Pitressin)

This hormone is used before Lypressin in treating diabetes insipidus

Oxtocin (Pitocin)

This hormone promotes uterine contractility & controls bleeding.

Adrenal Cortex

Where corticosteroids are produced that effect all body organs & maintain homeostasis

30 steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex: subcategories:

* Glucocorticoids
* Mineralocorticoids
* Adrenal sex hormones have no effect on body function

Glucocorticoids

These steroid hormones are important in metabolic, inflammatory, & immune processes

Mineralocorticoids

These steroid hormones are important in maintaining fluid/electrolyte balance

Addison's disease

Disorder of the adrenal cortex: an adrenocortical insufficiency
* Caused by destruction of adrenal cortex, TB, cancer, or hemorrhage, & atrophy of adrenal cortex
* Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency is caused by prolonged administration of corticosteroids

Congenital adrenogenital syndrome (Adrenal hyperplasia)

Disorder of the adrenal cortex: deficiencies of enzymes required for cortisol production

Cushing's disease: adrenocortical hyperfunction

Disorder of the adrenal cortex: excessive corticotropin primary adrenal tumor

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