occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone. A decrease in corticosteroid secretion
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids from adrenal cortex.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules to maintain water balance in the body fluids.
steroid produced by the cortices of the adrenal glands, cortisol. Promotes sodium retention & potassium excretion.
an increase in corticosteroid secretion, caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol
deficiency of ADH, large amounts of water are excreted by the kidneys, leading to severe fluid volume deficit and electrolyte imbalances.
influenced by ACTH, released from pituitary gland, helps body resist long-term stressors; increases blood glucose levels; controls effects of inflammation from edema
is the most common type of hyperthyroidism caused by hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by a rapid pulse (tachycardia), palpitations, excessive perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, irritability, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), and weight loss.
is an increase in circulating T4 and T3 levels, which results from an overactive thyroid gland or excessive output of thyroid hormones from one or more thyroid nodules.
the master gland (pituitary) of the endocrine system. has an anterior and posterior lobe.
a decrease in thyroid hormone secretion, can have either a primary cause (thyroid gland disorder) or a secondary cause (lack of TSH secretion). Primary hypothyroidism occurs more frequently.
low blood sodium or low vascular volume stimulates the adrenal cortes to secrete. e.g. fludrocortisone (Florinef) and aminoglutethimide (Cytadren)
is severe hypothyroidism in the adult; symptoms include lethargy, apathy, memory impairment, emotional changes, slow speech, deep coarse voice, edema of the eyelids and face, thick dry skin, cold intolerance, slow pulse, constipation, weight gain, and abnormal menses.
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
secreted from the parathyroid gland, a hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood
thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH)
the adenohypophysis (anterior Pituitary) secretes this and in response it secretes throxine- T4 and triodothyronine- T3.
same as Grave's disease, a condition that results from overproduction of the thyroid gland
T4, hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
T3, a thyroid hormone, 20% is from the thyroid and 80% comes from degradation of 40% of T4. Regulates protein synthesis and enzyme activity.
List the major organs of the endocrine system:
Functions of the endocrine system:
* Organs produce hormones secreted into blood that act on body organs
* Works with nervous system to regulate body functions
* Hormones regulate body activities
* Minor alterations can cause major organ dysfunction, disease, death
* Corticotropin-releasing hormone
* Growth hormone-releasing factor
* Growth hormone inhibiting factor
* Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
* Prolactin-releasing factor
* Prolactin inhibiting factor
* Growth hormone
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Functions of the pituitary gland
Stores & releases 2 hormones made by nerve cells in the hypothalamus:
* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates water balance
* Oxytocin functions in childbirth & lactation
The relationship between the hypothalamus & the pituitary glands:
These glands control metabolic funcitons of the body & maintain homeostasis
* Hypothalamus controls pituitary secretion
* Pituitary has an anterior & posterior portion
This part of the pituitary gland stores & releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus: oxytocin, ADH
Gonadorelin hydrochloride (Factrel), Nafarelin (Synarel)
These hormones are used to induce ovulation w/ hypothalmic amenorrhea & to diagnose tests of gonadotropic functions of the anterior pituitary
This hormone is used for diagnosing thyroid, pituitary, & hypothalamic function
This hormone used in children with impaired growth by deficiency of endogenous growth hormone.
This hormone is used in combo with HCG for treating infertility caused by lack of pituitary gonadotropins.
This hormone is used for distingishing b/w primary & secondary hypothyroidism
Where corticosteroids are produced that effect all body organs & maintain homeostasis
30 steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex: subcategories:
* Adrenal sex hormones have no effect on body function
Disorder of the adrenal cortex: an adrenocortical insufficiency
* Caused by destruction of adrenal cortex, TB, cancer, or hemorrhage, & atrophy of adrenal cortex
* Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency is caused by prolonged administration of corticosteroids
Congenital adrenogenital syndrome (Adrenal hyperplasia)
Disorder of the adrenal cortex: deficiencies of enzymes required for cortisol production