what is intelligence?
consists of a set of abilities required to engage in adaptive behavior that is goal-oriented in direction
What are eight theories of multiple intelligences & who proposed them?
1. linguistic/language = ability to think in multiple languages
3. spacial = understanding depth, angles
5. body kinesthetic = movement/coordination
8. naturalistic = common sense
What is triarchic theory of human intelligence & who proposed it?
- different aspects of intelligence work together
- there are 3 aspects
- proposed by sternberg
What are the 3 aspects of triarchic theory of human intelligence?
1. analytical = critical thinking, problem solving, comparing & contrasting
2. Creative = ability to think in new & innovative ways
3. Practical = ability to deal w/everyday problems of living
What are 5 characteristics of intelligence?
1. it is changeable
2. it is not fixed
3. genetics places an upper limit on our abilities
4. differences exist btw racial & ethnic groups
5. differences exist btw males & females
Males tender to be better at 4 things
1. visual spacial tasks = distance
2. motor skills involving aiming=eye/hand coordination
3. spacial temporal/hearing tasks
4. fluid reasoning = ability to see a problem & come up with a solution
females tender to be better at 4 things
1. verbal tasks = phonology (basic sounds) & semantics (meaning of words)
2. production & comprehension of complex writing/prose
3. fine motor skills = gatherers
4. perceptual speed = b/c they have been caregivers, quick at picking things up
what is phonology?
good at basic sounds
what is semantics?
good at meaning of words
what is mental age?
child's cognitive age of functioning
what is intelligence quotient (IQ)? (4)
1. developed by stern
2. related to mental age to chronological age
3. formula/IQ = MA/CA *100
4. good for early development but bad for late teens, b/c you peak cognitively at say 21 but you still chronically age, so it would drop your IQ
what is the IQ of an average child?
ex. 6 years old, mental age = 6 --> 6/6*100=100
what is the IQ of an mentally advanced child?
MA>CA yielding an IQ >100
what is the IQ of an mentally impaired child?
MA<CA yielding an IQ<100
what are deviation IQ scores? (6)
1. used to measure adult intelligence
2. based on deviation of IQ score from population avg
3. based on a normal or bell-shaped curve
4. 2/3 of population btw 85-115
5. 95% of population btw 70-130
6. 2.5% mentally challenged & 2.5% mentally advanced
Intelligence scales: Stanford-Binet is used to assess what & what 4 things does it assess?
- used to predict school performance
1. verbal reasoning=understand what you read
2. quantitative reasoning = numbers
3. figure abstract reasoning = space relationships
4. short term memory
Intelligence scales: Wechsler scales is used when & what 3 things does it assess?
- used in development research
1. verbal component=vocabulary & comprehension
2. performance component= #'s, picture completion
3. Overall score = combining & averaging verbal & performance
Mental retardation is diagnosed if what 3 things are present?
1. intellectual functioning is <70 (IQ <70)
2. significant disabilities in 2 or more adaptive skills (ADLs)
3. age of onset is <18
What are the four levels/degrees of impairment?
What are the four characteristics of mild impairment?
1. 50-70 IQ
2. 85% of challenged individuals
3. 2% of the 2.5% on the bell curve
4. they can be educated
What are the three characteristics of moderate impairment?
1. 35-50 IQ
2. 10% of challenged individuals
3. 0.1% of the 2.5% on the bell curve
What are the two characteristics of severe impairment?
1. 20-35 IQ
2. 4% of challenged individuals
What are the two characteristics of profound impairment?
1. <20 IQ
2. <2% of challenged individuals
What the five adaptive life skill of mildly impaired individuals?
1. 6th grade level of education
2. social & vocational skills (they can do a job, ex. secretarial)
3. higher end of problem solving
4. independent living
5. can do ADLs
What the six adaptive life skill of moderately impaired individuals?
1. they are trainable (not educatable)
2. 4th grade level
3. hold a job = must be routine/unskilled- great employee
4. must have supervision & structure
5. group home living
6. they can do ADLs, but they need reminding
What the seven adaptive life skill of severely impaired individuals?
1. cannot be educated
2. may talk or communicate in some manner
3. no benefit from training, no job
4. 24/7 care. cannot live alone
5. very controlled environment, routines
6. simple ADLs - try to comb hair
7. problems with bathing, toileting
What the four adaptive life skill of profoundly impaired individuals?
1. limited motor development - Ex. wheelchair w/being strapped in. need assistance w/all movement
2. little to no speech
3. unresponsive to training - including ADLs
4. 24/7 supervision
What is autism (5)?
1. 4 to 5 times more common in males versus females
2. if female, then more severe in nature (lower IQ)
3. in 2000 2-5 case per 10,000; in 2009=1 in 30, in 2011=1 in 150
4. 25% of individuals develop seizure disorders
5. associated medical conditions include =
b. congenital rubella
c. fragile x syndrome
What are the five essential features for diagnosis of autism?
1. early onset
2. social dysfunction
3. communication dysfunction
4. intellectual deficits
5. unusual behaviors
What are four possible causes of autism?
2. obesity in pregnant moms
3. vaccines = how they are preserved (mercury) & what is the timing of giving vaccines
4. have we been exposed to something that is changing the genetic code
What is early onset autism? (2)
1. peak age of onset is before 2 1/2 years of age
2. if it has not developed by age 5 it probably never will
What is social dysfunction & what are six characteristics?
- inability to form personal relationships
1. no eye contact
2. don't engage the human face
3. fixed stare
4. don't like to be held
5. engage in solitary play/uncooperative play
6. dont' have imaginary or fantasy play
What is communication dysfunction? (2)
1. normal patterns of babbling do not develop
2. do not show age appropriate gesturing skills & verbal imitation skills (pre language skills)
If language does develop in communication dysfunction it is characterized by these five things?
1. poor vocabulary
2. unusual speech content = don't make sense for the situation
3. simple speech structures
4. monotone quality to voice
5. inability to comprehend the concept of "opposites"
What is echolatic speech?
What is pronoun reversals
instead of "I did this" it is "you did this"
Autism: Intelligence (3)
1. associated with mental retardation
2. IQ ranging between 52-85
3. idiot savant or splinter skills (only found in 10-20% of autistic individuals
What is idiot savant or splinter skills?
isolated skills of superior performance
Ex. math computation, art abilities music abilities, calculating exact calendar dates
What are two types of unusual behaviors in autistic individuals?
1. sterotypic behaviors = arm flapping, clapping, rocking, tapping, spinning (themselves & objects)
2. self-injurious behaviors = head banging, biting, face slapping (to themselves or to others)
What are six interventions for autism?
1. electro convulsive therapy (no longer used)
2. dietary changes
3. drug treatments
5. behavoir modification = some success, positive/negative reinforcement
6. incorporate parents into program treatment
What is Down's Syndrome? (7)
1. first described by Esquirol in 1838
2. 1860 named Mongolian Idiocy by Langdon Down
3. Known as Down's Syndrome or Trisomy 21
4. 95% have extra chromosome 21
5. one of the most frequent cases of intellectual disability
6. 1 in 800 live births
7. increases with mother's age >45--> 1 in 50
What are five general characteristics of Down's Syndrome?
1. virtually all have intellectual disabilities
2. 25-50 IQ
3. some 70 IQ
4. most common cause of challenge in the moderate range
5. limited academic range = 4th grade level
Physical characteristics of Down's syndrome (general)? (2)
1. 50 physical clinical features can be identified at birth (visually seen)
2. not all are expressed equally or appear in everyone
What are eight common characteristics of Down's Syndrome?
1. shorter & stockier
2. unusually rounded head
3. small nose
4. enlarge tongue (over developed)
5. wider hands/feet with shorter fingers/toes
6. visual impairments
7. poor muscle tone & coordination
8. simian crease (only one crease across the palm)
Three other conditions found in people with Down's Syndrome
1. congenital heart defects
3. leukemia in later adulthood
What is the life expectancy in someone with Down's Syndrome? (2)
1. 1930 = 9 years (medical, institutions)
2. Today > 70 years = death usually due to care issues
Five development strategies for individual's with Down's Syndrome
1. Normalization = as normal as possible in school & home
2. Social skill training = very affectionate/friendly --> teach what is proper
3. personal self control = appropriate time & place for things
4. main-streaming = regular classroom setting
5. Taught academic & life skills to the best of their abilities
What are four communication (language) systems that carry messages?
1. natural language = learn it when little
2. artificial language
3. visual communication
4. non-verbal communication
What is natural language?
1. complex system for transmitting specific meanings through words
2. Two key components = Verbal comprehension & verbal fluency
3. Four main areas = phonology, semantics, grammar, pragmatics
What are the two key components of natural language?
1. Verbal comprehension
2. verbal fluency
What is verbal comprehension?
ability to understand written or spoken language
what is verbal fluency?
ability to produce language with ease
What is phonology?
1. examines how BASIC SOUNDS are put together to form words & how the intonation patterns of phrases & sentences are determined
What is phoneme? (3)
1. shortest speech unit in which a change produces an alteration in meaning
2. first phoneme between "bat" and "cat"
3. middle phoneme between "bat" and "bit"
What is semantics?
the study of word meanings
What is denotation?
strict dictionary definition of a word
what is connotation?
emotional overtone to a word or some other non-explicit meaning of a word. not in the dictionary
What is grammar?
study of sentence structure
what is grammar morphology? (3)
1. rules for forming words from sounds
2. describes the smallest units of meaning that modify the basic meanings of words
3. also includes rules for plurals, past tenses, prefixes, and suffixes
What is grammar syntax? (3)
1. rules for forming sentences
2. specific ways in which individual words are combines in sentences
3. application of syntactic rules provides the greatest opportunity for linguistic creativity
What is pragmatics? (2)
- the rules governing the use of language in context by real speakers & listeners int real situations
- shakespeare --> texts
What is artificial language?
- Examples include mathematical equations, musical notations & computer programs that use agreed-upon systems of symbols, signs, formulas
Ex. periodic table, binary symbols, music, sign language
What is visual communication? (2)
1. pictures & diagrams that convey ideas and/or feelings
2. Universal signs: skull/cross bones = poison, peace = different symbols
What are four nonverbal communications?
1. paralanguage = aspects of language other than words Ex. how loud you speak, tone/pitch, hesitation
2. body gestures = how you sit, stand, carry yourself
3. physical distance = how far or how close you stand to a person
4. Eye contact = sign of respect, strength
What is paralanguage?
aspects of language other than words Ex. how loud you speak, tone/pitch, hesitation
What are five factors related to distance in nonverbal communication?
1. relationship of individuals
2. status = older, respect issue
3. authority figures
4. ethnic & cultural differences
5. Sex differences
Furtherest to closest in nonverbal communication distance geographic
Furtherest to closest in nonverbal communication distance sex differences
Man & woman
What is Child-directed speech (CDS)? (5)
1. also referred to as "baby talk" = adult talk, just presented differently
2. most adults & children do it
3. may well be universal
4. documented in many languages & cultures
5. researchers believe that CDS helps children learn their native language or at least pick it up faster
What are six characteristics of CDS?
1. speak slowly
2. higher pitched voice with exaggerated ups & downs
3. exaggerating vowel sounds
4. simple speech
5. short words & sentences
CDS is believed to teach children 7 things
1. how to carry on a conversation
2. how to turn take in conversation = back & forth
3. who to introduce a topic
4. who to comment on or add to a topic
5. how to use new words
6. how to structure phrases
7. who to put ideas into language
what is holophrases? (2)
1. 12-18 months
2. the expression of a whole
Language development: 6 months
responds to his name
Language development: 12 months
uses one or more words with meaning (this may be a fragment of a word)
Language development: 18 months
vocabulary made up chiefly of nouns
Language development: 24 months
my and mine are beginning to emerge
Language development: 36 months
use pronouns I, you, me correctly
Language development: 60 months (3)
1. knows common opposites = big/little, hard/soft
2. can count to ten
3. should have simple time concepts = morning, afternoon, night, day, later, after, while tomorrow, yesterday, today
Language development: 7 years (2)
1. should be able to tell time to quarter hour
2. should be able to do simple reading & to write or print many words
Language development: 8 years (2)
1. can relate rather involved accounts of events, many of which occurred at some time in the past
2. can carry on conversation at rather adult level
what is stuttering?
- is speech that has more dysfluencies than is considered average
what is fluent speech?
smooth, forward moving, effortless with no hesitation
What is dysfluent speech?
any break in the flow of speech
What are five characteristics of stuttering?
1. can be accompanied by tension or anxiety
2. sound or syllable repetition
3. prolongation = unnatural stretching out of the sound
4. blocks = sound gets stuck & cannot come out
5. facial grimacing or ticks
What are four causes of stuttering?
1. genetic basis
2. disorder of the timing of the moving of the speech muscles (speech therapy may work)
3. defect in the auditory feedback --> speech easy device many help this (works like another person is talking along with them)
4. there is a lack of cerebral dominance for language function, the right side is dominant vs. the left side
What are six facts about stuttering?
1. more often in males than females, 3:1 ratio
2. 3 million Americans have profound stuttering
3. not a sign of emotional or mental disorder
4. can be source of stress
5. normal or above normal intelligence
6. it is not a learned behavior
Six pointers for engaging in a conversation with a stutter
1. focus on what they are saying, not how they are saying it
2. speak slower yourself
3. you are more relaxed & attentive
4. don't look away if they get stuck on a word
5. don't interrupt or finish their sentence
6. don't give them advice
What is dyslexia?
- is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read
Dyslexia general (3)
1. individual typically read at level significantly lower than expected for intelligence
2. difficulty reading, writing & spelling in their native language
3. prognosis is good if detected early
What are eight preschool warning signs for dyslexia?
1. delayed speech
2. a lack of dominant handiness
3. difficulty in learning names of letters or sounds in the alphabet
4. problem with tying their shoes
5. child with a lot of allergies
6. confusion with directions (ex. knowing left & right)
7. inability to rhyme by age four
8. mixing up sounds Ex. Animal vs. amimal, spaghetti vs. bisegetti
Dyslexia: Five reading difficulties
1. visibly tired after reading for a short time
2. slow, labored reading, hard time reading words in singular
3. ignore punctuation
4. frequently reverse, invert or transpose letters
5. omit or change suffixes on words. Ex. I need to go to the bank ---> I needed to go to the bank
Dyslexia: Three spelling difficulties
1. transposing letters = spelling errors
2. signs of spelling uncertain (ex. a lot of erase marks)
3. they misspell when copying from the board
Dyslexia: five handwriting difficulties
1. illegible handwriting
2. unusual pencil grip
3. hold pencil almost at lead (lower than normal) with a tight grip
4. difficulty getting letters to sit on a horizontal line
5. unusual spacial organization of the page
what are 3 types of temperaments in infants?
1. easy temperament = even tempered, typically content or happy
2. difficult temperament = active, irritable & irregular in habits
3. slow-to-warm up temperament = relatively inactive, somewhat moody & moderately regular in daily schedules