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New France was characterized by

more peaceful European-Indian relations than existed in New Spain.

The repartimiento system established by the Spanish in the mid-1500s

recognized Indians as free but required them to perform a fixed amount of labor.

According to Bartolomé de Las Casas

Spain had caused the deaths of millions of innocent people in the New World

In 1517, the German priest _______________ began the Protestant Reformation by posting his Ninety-Five Theses, which accused the Catholic Church of worldliness and corruption

Martin Luther

Which of the following was NOT a technique that Spanish conquistadores used to conquer Native American empires

Negotiating treaties

Which one of the following statements about African slavery within Africa is FALSE

Only men were taken for the slave trade

Europeans generally believed all of the following about Indians EXCEPT that

Indians had enormous potential to assimilate European ways.

Anne Hutchinson:

opposed Puritan ministers who promised salvation through church attendance and moral behavior rather than through divine grace

Patroonship in New Netherland

meant that shareholders received large estates for transporting tenants for agricultural labor

In their relations with Native Americans, the Dutch

concentrated more on economics than religious conversion

How did the Dutch manifest their devotion to liberty

They supported freedom of religion in their colony

Which European country dominated international commerce in the early seventeenth century?

The Netherlands

The Spanish set up outposts from Florida to South Carolina in part because

Spanish missionaries hoped to convert local Native Americans to Christianity

The New Laws of 1542:

commanded that Indians no longer be enslaved in Spanish possessions.

Which one of the following statements about Spanish America is true

Over time, Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture—part Spanish, part Indian, and, in some areas, part African

Alarmed by the destructiveness of the conquistadores, the Spanish crown replaced them with a more stable system of government headed by

lawyers and bureaucrats

The Coumbian Exchange was:

the transatlantic flow of plants, animals, and germs that began after Christopher Columbus reached the New World.

Why did European exploration of the New World proceed so rapidly after Columbus's discoveries?

Gutenberg's invention of the printing press enabled the rapid dissemination of information.

What motivated the Portuguese to begin exploration to find a water route to India, China, and the East Indies?

To eliminate the Muslim "middlemen" in the luxury goods trade

Slavery in Africa:

involved the enslavement of criminals, debtors, and war captives.

Under English law in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, women

surrendered their legal identities when they married.

In England, social inequality

was part of a hierarchical society

Which one of the following is true of religion in seventeenth-century Europe

Religious uniformity was thought to be essential to public order

In Europe on the eve of colonization, one conception of freedom, called "Christian liberty,"

mingled ideas of freedom with servitude to Jesus Christ—concepts that were seen as mutually reinforcing, not contradictory.

Which statement about gender relations is FALSE for most Native American societies

Tribal leaders were almost always women

Native American religious ceremonies

were related to the Native American belief that sacred spirits could be found in living and inanimate things.

When Europeans arrived, many Native Americans

tried to use them to enhance their standing with other Native Americans

Before the arrival of Columbus, Native North Americans

had elaborate trade networks

Which one of the following statements is true of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán

It had a complex system of canals, bridges, and dams, with the Great Temple at the center.

Adam Smith recorded in 1776 that the "two greatest and most important" events in the history of mankind were the

discovery of America and the Portuguese sea route around Africa to Asia

The marriage between John Rolfe and Pocahontas:

was seen in England as a sign of Anglo-Indian harmony and missionary success

Which one of the following is true of indentured servants:

Their masters could determine whether they could marry

A consequence of the English Civil War was

an English belief that England was the world's guardian of liberty

As a prelude to the English Civil War, leaders of the House of Commons

accused the king of imposing taxes without parliamentary consent

The Magna Carta

granted many liberties, but mainly to lords and barons

The Half-Way covenant of 1662

did not require evidence of conversion to receive a kind of church membership

Boston merchants

challenged the subordination of economic activity to Puritan control

In the seventeenth century, New England's economy

centered on family farms and also involved the export of fish and timber

The Massachusetts General Court

reflected the Puritans' desire to govern the colony without outside interference

New England towns

much of the land remained for collective use or to be divided among later settlers

In early seventeenth-century Massachusetts, freeman status was granted to adult males who

were landowning church members

The Mayflower Compact established

a civil government for the Plymouth colony

What was Puritan leader and Massachusetts Bay Governor John Winthrop's attitude toward liberty

He saw two kinds of liberty: natural liberty, the ability to do evil, and moral liberty, the ability to do good

Why did Puritans decide to emigrate from England

The Church of England was firing their ministers and censoring their writings

Puritans followed the religious ideas of:

John Calvin

What was Virginia's "gold," which ensured its survival and prosperity

tobacco

It can be argued that conflict between the English settlers and local Indians in Virginia became inevitable when

the Native Americans realized that England wanted to establish a permanent and constantly expanding colony, not just a trading post.

To entice settlers to Virginia, the Virginia Company established the headright system, which

provided land to settlers who paid their own passage

The Virginia House of Burgesses

was the first elected legislative body in the English colonies

As leader of the Jamestown colony, John Smith

alienated many of the colonists with his autocratic rule

Which of the following statements is true about the early history of Jamestown

The death rate was extraordinarily high

Which English group did the most to reshape Native American society and culture in the seventeenth century

the settlers farming the land

What did English settlers in North America believe was the basis of liberty?

land

As a result of British landowners evicting peasants from their lands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

efforts were made to persuade or even force those who had been evicted to settle in the New World, thereby easing the British population crisis

Which one of the following spurred increased European interest in colonizing North America

national and religious rivalries

Why did England consider Spain its enemy by the late 1500s

because of religious differences: England had officially broken with the Roman Catholic Church, while Spain was devoutly Catholic

Queen Mary of England, predecessor of Elizabeth I

temporarily restored Catholicism as the state religion of England.

Which of the following was true of agriculture in the colonies during the eighteenth century

Because New York's landlords had taken over so much land, agriculture grew more slowly in New York than in other colonies.

What role did Native Americans play in British imperial wars during the eighteenth century?

They did much of the fighting in the wars.

Once Massachusetts became a royal colony in 1691

it was required to abide by the English Act of Toleration, which displeased many Puritan leaders

Bacon's Rebellion was a response to

worsening economic conditions in Virginia

Carolina grew slowly until

rice as a staple crop was discovered to be extremely profitable

As English colonial society became more structured in the eighteenth century, what were the effects on women

Women's work became more clearly defined as tied closely to the home

By the eighteenth century, colonial farm families

almost always owned at least three slaves

Which of the following was true of the colonial elite

they controlled colonial government

By the eighteenth century, consumer goods such as books and ceramic plates

were increasingly available in the colonies

According to laws in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake

free blacks had the right to sue and testify in court.

Ideas of race and racism in seventeenth-century England

had not fully developed as modern concepts

The Scottish and Scotch-Irish immigrants to the colonies

were often physicians, merchants, and teachers

The German migration to the English colonies

led to the formation of many farming communities

Which of the following fits the description of a person most likely to have been accused of witchcraft in seventeenth-century New England

a woman beyond childbearing age who was outspoken, economically independent, or estranged from her husband

In what ways did England reduce colonial autonomy during the 1680s

A royal governor actually held power under the Dominion of New England

The Glorious Revolution of 1688

resulted mainly from the fears of English aristocrats that the birth of James II's son would lead to a Catholic succession

Bacon's Rebellion contributed to which of the following in Virginia

the replacing of indentured servants with African slaves on Virginia's plantations

Which of the following was true of small farmers in 1670s Virginia

The lack of good land, high taxes on tobacco, and falling prices reduced their prospects

What ironic consequence did William Penn's generous policies, such as religious toleration and inexpensive land, have

They contributed to the increasing reliance of Virginia and Maryland on African slave labor

To Quakers, liberty was:

a universal entitlement

How did English rule affect the Iroquois Confederacy

After a series of complex negotiations, both groups aided each other's imperial ambitions

"enumerate" goods:

were colonial products, such as tobacco and sugar, that could only be exported to English ports.

According to the economic theory known as mercantilism

the government should regulate colonial exports to promote national power

What was the impact of King Philip's War

Native Americans war tactics caused them to be viewed as brutal savages by most New Englanders.

Deists shared the ideas of eighteenth-century European Enlightenment thinkers, namely that

science could uncover God's laws that governed the natural order

Which of the following was a consequence of the Seven Years' War

strengthened pride among American colonists about being part of the British empire

What was the primary purpose of the Proclamation of 1763

to bring stability to the colonial frontier

What did Neolin, a Delaware Indian and religious prophet, tell his people they must reject?

European technology and material goods

The French and Indian War began because some American colonists felt that

France was encroaching on land claimed by the Ohio Company

By the eighteenth century, the Spanish empire in North America

rested economically on trading with and extracting labor from surviving Native Americans

Revivalist preachers during the Great Awakening frequently

criticized commercial society

The most famous Great Awakening revivalist minister was

George Whitefield

John Peter Zenger's libel trial

probably would not have ended in his acquittal if he had attacked someone other than the colonial governor

Which one of the following did NOT contribute to the expansion of the public sphere during the eighteenth century?

the founding of the California missions

During the eighteenth century, colonial assemblies

became more assertive

"salutary neglect" meant

British governments left the colonies largely alone to govern themselves

How did colonial politics compare with British politics

Colonists tended to agree with the British that owning property was related to having the right to vote

How did John Locke reconcile his belief in natural rights and his support for slavery

He believed that the free individual in liberal thought was the propertied white man

John Locke's political philosophy stressed

a contract system between the people and the government

"Republicanism" in the eighteenth-century Anglo-American political world emphasized the importance of ____________ as the essence of liberty

active participation in public life by property-owning citizens

Slave resistance in the eighteenth century

included rebellions in both northern and southern colonies that led to the deaths of several of those involved in planning the conspiracies

Which of the following is true of eighteenth-century slavery in South Carolina and Georgia

Plantation slaves enjoyed far more autonomy than they did in other colonies, allowing them to maintain more of their African culture.

In the northern colonies, slaves

were relatively few in number and dispersed among the white population in small holdings

Georgia was established by James Oglethorpe, whose causes included improved conditions for imprisoned debtors and the abolition of

slavery

the tack system

assigned slaves daily jobs and allowed them free time upon completion of those jobs.

The early South Carolina economy focused on the export of deerskins and furs to England as well as on

the export of Indian slaves to the Caribbean.

Tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region

helped make the Chesapeake colonies models of mercantilism.

Which of the following is a true statement about the Atlantic slave trade's effect in West Africa

It helped lead to the rise of militarized states in West Africa, whose large armies preyed upon their neighbors in order to capture slaves.

The Boston Massacre occurred when British soldiers

fired into a mob and killed a number of Boston residents.

Why did colonists object to the Tea Act

By paying it, they would be acknowledging Great Britain's right to tax the colonists without their consent

The Committees of Safety

were part of a series of efforts by the Continental Congress to promote unity and to take action against enemies of liberty

Washington's defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown

destroyed British public support for the war

Cornwallis was defeated at Yorktown because

he had no land or water escape route

During the Revolutionary War, tensions between backcountry farmers and wealthy planters

gave the British hope that they might be able to enlist the support of southern Loyalists

After the Battle of Saratoga, the focus of the war shifted

to the South, where the British captured Savannah that year

A key consequence of the Battle of Saratoga was

France became an ally to the United States

The Olive Branch Petition

was addressed to King George III and reaffirmed American loyalty to the crown

John Adams recommended George Washington as commander of the Continental army because

the fact that Washington was from Virginia could help unify the colonists

What were the Suffolk Resolves

a set of resolutions, urging Massachusetts citizens to prepare for war

Crispus Attucks:

has been called the first martyr of the American Revolution

The "Daughters of Liberty" was the name given to

women who spun and wove to create their own clothing rather than buy British goods.

The Declaratory Act

rejected Americans' claims that only their elected representatives could levy taxes

The Sons of Liberty

was the creation of several ambitious but not-too-wealthy New York merchants

What contribution did the Stamp Act episode make to the colonists' concept of liberty

The Stamp Act Congress insisted that the right to consent to taxation was essential to people's freedom.

The Stamp Act created such a stir in the colonies because

it was the first direct tax Parliament imposed on the colonies

The Sugar Act alarmed colonists, in part because it

threatened the profits of colonial merchants already in economic trouble

Virtual representation was the idea

that each member of Britain's House of Commons represented the entire empire, not just his own district

What major event first led the British government to seek ways to make the colonies bear part of the cost of the empire

The Seven Years' War

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