New France was characterized by
more peaceful European-Indian relations than existed in New Spain.
The repartimiento system established by the Spanish in the mid-1500s
recognized Indians as free but required them to perform a fixed amount of labor.
According to Bartolomé de Las Casas
Spain had caused the deaths of millions of innocent people in the New World
In 1517, the German priest _______________ began the Protestant Reformation by posting his Ninety-Five Theses, which accused the Catholic Church of worldliness and corruption
Which of the following was NOT a technique that Spanish conquistadores used to conquer Native American empires
Which one of the following statements about African slavery within Africa is FALSE
Only men were taken for the slave trade
Europeans generally believed all of the following about Indians EXCEPT that
Indians had enormous potential to assimilate European ways.
opposed Puritan ministers who promised salvation through church attendance and moral behavior rather than through divine grace
Patroonship in New Netherland
meant that shareholders received large estates for transporting tenants for agricultural labor
In their relations with Native Americans, the Dutch
concentrated more on economics than religious conversion
How did the Dutch manifest their devotion to liberty
They supported freedom of religion in their colony
Which European country dominated international commerce in the early seventeenth century?
The Spanish set up outposts from Florida to South Carolina in part because
Spanish missionaries hoped to convert local Native Americans to Christianity
The New Laws of 1542:
commanded that Indians no longer be enslaved in Spanish possessions.
Which one of the following statements about Spanish America is true
Over time, Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture—part Spanish, part Indian, and, in some areas, part African
Alarmed by the destructiveness of the conquistadores, the Spanish crown replaced them with a more stable system of government headed by
lawyers and bureaucrats
The Coumbian Exchange was:
the transatlantic flow of plants, animals, and germs that began after Christopher Columbus reached the New World.
Why did European exploration of the New World proceed so rapidly after Columbus's discoveries?
Gutenberg's invention of the printing press enabled the rapid dissemination of information.
What motivated the Portuguese to begin exploration to find a water route to India, China, and the East Indies?
To eliminate the Muslim "middlemen" in the luxury goods trade
Slavery in Africa:
involved the enslavement of criminals, debtors, and war captives.
Under English law in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, women
surrendered their legal identities when they married.
In England, social inequality
was part of a hierarchical society
Which one of the following is true of religion in seventeenth-century Europe
Religious uniformity was thought to be essential to public order
In Europe on the eve of colonization, one conception of freedom, called "Christian liberty,"
mingled ideas of freedom with servitude to Jesus Christ—concepts that were seen as mutually reinforcing, not contradictory.
Which statement about gender relations is FALSE for most Native American societies
Tribal leaders were almost always women
Native American religious ceremonies
were related to the Native American belief that sacred spirits could be found in living and inanimate things.
When Europeans arrived, many Native Americans
tried to use them to enhance their standing with other Native Americans
Before the arrival of Columbus, Native North Americans
had elaborate trade networks
Which one of the following statements is true of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán
It had a complex system of canals, bridges, and dams, with the Great Temple at the center.
Adam Smith recorded in 1776 that the "two greatest and most important" events in the history of mankind were the
discovery of America and the Portuguese sea route around Africa to Asia
The marriage between John Rolfe and Pocahontas:
was seen in England as a sign of Anglo-Indian harmony and missionary success
Which one of the following is true of indentured servants:
Their masters could determine whether they could marry
A consequence of the English Civil War was
an English belief that England was the world's guardian of liberty
As a prelude to the English Civil War, leaders of the House of Commons
accused the king of imposing taxes without parliamentary consent
The Magna Carta
granted many liberties, but mainly to lords and barons
The Half-Way covenant of 1662
did not require evidence of conversion to receive a kind of church membership
challenged the subordination of economic activity to Puritan control
In the seventeenth century, New England's economy
centered on family farms and also involved the export of fish and timber
The Massachusetts General Court
reflected the Puritans' desire to govern the colony without outside interference
New England towns
much of the land remained for collective use or to be divided among later settlers
In early seventeenth-century Massachusetts, freeman status was granted to adult males who
were landowning church members
The Mayflower Compact established
a civil government for the Plymouth colony
What was Puritan leader and Massachusetts Bay Governor John Winthrop's attitude toward liberty
He saw two kinds of liberty: natural liberty, the ability to do evil, and moral liberty, the ability to do good
Why did Puritans decide to emigrate from England
The Church of England was firing their ministers and censoring their writings
Puritans followed the religious ideas of:
What was Virginia's "gold," which ensured its survival and prosperity
It can be argued that conflict between the English settlers and local Indians in Virginia became inevitable when
the Native Americans realized that England wanted to establish a permanent and constantly expanding colony, not just a trading post.
To entice settlers to Virginia, the Virginia Company established the headright system, which
provided land to settlers who paid their own passage
The Virginia House of Burgesses
was the first elected legislative body in the English colonies
As leader of the Jamestown colony, John Smith
alienated many of the colonists with his autocratic rule
Which of the following statements is true about the early history of Jamestown
The death rate was extraordinarily high
Which English group did the most to reshape Native American society and culture in the seventeenth century
the settlers farming the land
What did English settlers in North America believe was the basis of liberty?
As a result of British landowners evicting peasants from their lands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
efforts were made to persuade or even force those who had been evicted to settle in the New World, thereby easing the British population crisis
Which one of the following spurred increased European interest in colonizing North America
national and religious rivalries
Why did England consider Spain its enemy by the late 1500s
because of religious differences: England had officially broken with the Roman Catholic Church, while Spain was devoutly Catholic
Queen Mary of England, predecessor of Elizabeth I
temporarily restored Catholicism as the state religion of England.
Which of the following was true of agriculture in the colonies during the eighteenth century
Because New York's landlords had taken over so much land, agriculture grew more slowly in New York than in other colonies.
What role did Native Americans play in British imperial wars during the eighteenth century?
They did much of the fighting in the wars.
Once Massachusetts became a royal colony in 1691
it was required to abide by the English Act of Toleration, which displeased many Puritan leaders
Bacon's Rebellion was a response to
worsening economic conditions in Virginia
Carolina grew slowly until
rice as a staple crop was discovered to be extremely profitable
As English colonial society became more structured in the eighteenth century, what were the effects on women
Women's work became more clearly defined as tied closely to the home
By the eighteenth century, colonial farm families
almost always owned at least three slaves
Which of the following was true of the colonial elite
they controlled colonial government
By the eighteenth century, consumer goods such as books and ceramic plates
were increasingly available in the colonies
According to laws in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake
free blacks had the right to sue and testify in court.
Ideas of race and racism in seventeenth-century England
had not fully developed as modern concepts
The Scottish and Scotch-Irish immigrants to the colonies
were often physicians, merchants, and teachers
The German migration to the English colonies
led to the formation of many farming communities
Which of the following fits the description of a person most likely to have been accused of witchcraft in seventeenth-century New England
a woman beyond childbearing age who was outspoken, economically independent, or estranged from her husband
In what ways did England reduce colonial autonomy during the 1680s
A royal governor actually held power under the Dominion of New England
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
resulted mainly from the fears of English aristocrats that the birth of James II's son would lead to a Catholic succession
Bacon's Rebellion contributed to which of the following in Virginia
the replacing of indentured servants with African slaves on Virginia's plantations
Which of the following was true of small farmers in 1670s Virginia
The lack of good land, high taxes on tobacco, and falling prices reduced their prospects
What ironic consequence did William Penn's generous policies, such as religious toleration and inexpensive land, have
They contributed to the increasing reliance of Virginia and Maryland on African slave labor
To Quakers, liberty was:
a universal entitlement
How did English rule affect the Iroquois Confederacy
After a series of complex negotiations, both groups aided each other's imperial ambitions
were colonial products, such as tobacco and sugar, that could only be exported to English ports.
According to the economic theory known as mercantilism
the government should regulate colonial exports to promote national power
What was the impact of King Philip's War
Native Americans war tactics caused them to be viewed as brutal savages by most New Englanders.
Deists shared the ideas of eighteenth-century European Enlightenment thinkers, namely that
science could uncover God's laws that governed the natural order
Which of the following was a consequence of the Seven Years' War
strengthened pride among American colonists about being part of the British empire
What was the primary purpose of the Proclamation of 1763
to bring stability to the colonial frontier
What did Neolin, a Delaware Indian and religious prophet, tell his people they must reject?
European technology and material goods
The French and Indian War began because some American colonists felt that
France was encroaching on land claimed by the Ohio Company
By the eighteenth century, the Spanish empire in North America
rested economically on trading with and extracting labor from surviving Native Americans
Revivalist preachers during the Great Awakening frequently
criticized commercial society
The most famous Great Awakening revivalist minister was
John Peter Zenger's libel trial
probably would not have ended in his acquittal if he had attacked someone other than the colonial governor
Which one of the following did NOT contribute to the expansion of the public sphere during the eighteenth century?
the founding of the California missions
During the eighteenth century, colonial assemblies
became more assertive
"salutary neglect" meant
British governments left the colonies largely alone to govern themselves
How did colonial politics compare with British politics
Colonists tended to agree with the British that owning property was related to having the right to vote
How did John Locke reconcile his belief in natural rights and his support for slavery
He believed that the free individual in liberal thought was the propertied white man
John Locke's political philosophy stressed
a contract system between the people and the government
"Republicanism" in the eighteenth-century Anglo-American political world emphasized the importance of ____________ as the essence of liberty
active participation in public life by property-owning citizens
Slave resistance in the eighteenth century
included rebellions in both northern and southern colonies that led to the deaths of several of those involved in planning the conspiracies
Which of the following is true of eighteenth-century slavery in South Carolina and Georgia
Plantation slaves enjoyed far more autonomy than they did in other colonies, allowing them to maintain more of their African culture.
In the northern colonies, slaves
were relatively few in number and dispersed among the white population in small holdings
Georgia was established by James Oglethorpe, whose causes included improved conditions for imprisoned debtors and the abolition of
the tack system
assigned slaves daily jobs and allowed them free time upon completion of those jobs.
The early South Carolina economy focused on the export of deerskins and furs to England as well as on
the export of Indian slaves to the Caribbean.
Tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region
helped make the Chesapeake colonies models of mercantilism.
Which of the following is a true statement about the Atlantic slave trade's effect in West Africa
It helped lead to the rise of militarized states in West Africa, whose large armies preyed upon their neighbors in order to capture slaves.
The Boston Massacre occurred when British soldiers
fired into a mob and killed a number of Boston residents.
Why did colonists object to the Tea Act
By paying it, they would be acknowledging Great Britain's right to tax the colonists without their consent
The Committees of Safety
were part of a series of efforts by the Continental Congress to promote unity and to take action against enemies of liberty
Washington's defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown
destroyed British public support for the war
Cornwallis was defeated at Yorktown because
he had no land or water escape route
During the Revolutionary War, tensions between backcountry farmers and wealthy planters
gave the British hope that they might be able to enlist the support of southern Loyalists
After the Battle of Saratoga, the focus of the war shifted
to the South, where the British captured Savannah that year
A key consequence of the Battle of Saratoga was
France became an ally to the United States
The Olive Branch Petition
was addressed to King George III and reaffirmed American loyalty to the crown
John Adams recommended George Washington as commander of the Continental army because
the fact that Washington was from Virginia could help unify the colonists
What were the Suffolk Resolves
a set of resolutions, urging Massachusetts citizens to prepare for war
has been called the first martyr of the American Revolution
The "Daughters of Liberty" was the name given to
women who spun and wove to create their own clothing rather than buy British goods.
The Declaratory Act
rejected Americans' claims that only their elected representatives could levy taxes
The Sons of Liberty
was the creation of several ambitious but not-too-wealthy New York merchants
What contribution did the Stamp Act episode make to the colonists' concept of liberty
The Stamp Act Congress insisted that the right to consent to taxation was essential to people's freedom.
The Stamp Act created such a stir in the colonies because
it was the first direct tax Parliament imposed on the colonies
The Sugar Act alarmed colonists, in part because it
threatened the profits of colonial merchants already in economic trouble
Virtual representation was the idea
that each member of Britain's House of Commons represented the entire empire, not just his own district
What major event first led the British government to seek ways to make the colonies bear part of the cost of the empire
The Seven Years' War