CDIS Chapter 13

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-From emergent literacy to literacy.

Literacy

-The use of visual modes of communication
=reading (decode-phonetics & comprehension)
=writing-spelling & composittion (ability to write sentences and paragraphs)
-Encompasses language, academics, cognitive processes (thinking, memory, problem solving, planning and execution) and is related to other forms of communication.

Literacy: cont

-Interrelated: correlation between reading and spelling ability.
-Rely on a language base (assume that the user can encode and decode messages, able to comprehend and compose messages for others)
=language disorder= at risk for literacy impairment (as many as 60%)
=Unprepared for literacy learning (lack preliteracy skills, oral language base)
-Adults who struggled with reading as children continue to struggle.
-Reading consists of decoding and reading comprehension.

SLP's Role

-ASHA: (preschool & early elementary level)
=educate both teachers and parents in the oral language-literacy relationship
=identify children at risk
=make referrals to strong, literacy-rich programs
=recommend assessment and treatment in preliteracy skills when needed
=IMPORTANT to collaborate with teachers, parents, reading specialist, etc.
-Older Students:
=improve reading and writing skills
=help develop strong language base

Reading and Comprehension

-Language and written context play a role in word recognition, making meaning from print.
-Decoding:
=breaking or segmenting a word into its component sounds, then blending them together to form a recognizable word
=words take on more meaning based on grammar, context

Phonological Awareness

-Knowledge of sounds and syllables and sound structure of words
-Includes phonemic awareness:
=ability to manipulate sounds (blend, segment)
-Phonological awareness= best predictor of spelling in elementary school
-Includes many skills: recognition of syllable deletion, blending, comparing initial word sounds, etc.

Comprehension

-Critical literacy: reader actively analyzes, synthesizes info & is able to explain content
-Dynamic literacy: reader interrelates content to other knowledge through deductive and inductive reasoning (comparing, contrasting, integrating ideas, using info for problem solving)
-Occurs as one combines textual material, text grammar and reader's world knowledge.
-Important aspect of reading for SLPs

Emergent Literacy

-Oral and written language= interrelated systems developing concurrently and continuously beginning long before starting school
-Based on:
=reading and writing developmental rooted in oral language acquisition.
=oral & written language= developmentally intertwined
=preschool children with language disorders, other risk factors experience difficulty learning to read, write
-Oral language supports literacy, and there is a strong connection among oral language, later literacy, and overal academic achievement.
-Ex= oral language ability to recognize speech sounds as separate units (dog= /d/ /a/ /g/) is a prerequisite for reading.

Extrinsic Factors

-Socio Economic Status= low income family= at risk- not efficient literacy experiences at home, not enough exposure to print= one of strongest predictors for reading achievement difference.
-Linguistic/ Cultural Background= ELL students= at risk
-Home Literacy Environment= need stimulating, responsive environment- exposure to print, ovserve uses of print, encouraged to engage with print- shared reading- adult role models
-Family History= risk factor, families with history of language and learning impairment, environment

Emerging Literacy Cont:

-Print Awareness= knowlege of meaning, function of print, basic concepts (letter recognition, direction of print, book)
-Predictors (kindergarten skills for 2nd grade success)= letter identification, sentence imitation, phonological awareness (phonological processing ability that involves manipulating the sound structure of spoken language), RAN: rapid automatic language, vocabulary, maternal education level
-Learning to read, reading to learn

Prevention

-Provide opportunities for literacy activities= exposure to print, modeling literacy acts (grocery list, newspaper, stories)
-Requires collaboration= occur at home & school- includes educators, SLPs, family, administrators, etc.
-Early identification of those at risk= take proactive stance-identify problem before its too late

Assessment

-Language or learning disorder?
-Nature of disorder
-Gather info to determine appropriate recommendations re: additional testing, intervention, etc.
-Procedure
=informal & formal assessments
=observation in different settings
=parent interviews/ questionnaires

Intervention

-Early intervention= CRITICAL
-Best practices:
=direct, explicit instruction for all children
=embed instruction in natural, authentic tasks
=include parent training as part of intervention
=scaffold to guide child's understanding beyond current independent level

Intervention: cont

-Shared book reading & sense of story
-Vocab
-Phonological awareness
-Concepts/conventions of print
-Emergent writing
-Alphabetic letter knowledge
-Adult modeling of literacy activities

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