Quick and Easy Medical Terminology, Chapter 6

121 terms by ErinShelby1992

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-33 terms -88 phrases

clavicul/o

clavicle (collarbone)

crani/o

cranium (skull)

cost/o

costa (rib)

scapul/o

scapula (shoulder blade)

stern/o

sternum (breast bone)

rachi/o, spin/o

spine (backbone)

spondyl/o, vertebr/o

spinal bones (vertebrae)

cervic/o

cervical vertebrae

thorac/o

thoracic vertebrae

lumb/o

lumbar vertebrae

sacr/o

sacrum (sacral vertebrae)

coccyg/o

coccyx (coccygeal vertebrae)

humer/o

humerus (upper arm bone)

radi/o, uln/o

radius, ulna (bones of the forearm)

carp/o

carpals (wrist bones)

metacarp/o

metacarpals (bones of the hand)

phalang/o

phalanges (bones of the fingers and toes)

ili/o, ischi/o, pub/o

ilium, ischium, pubis (pelvice bone)

femor/o

femur (thigh bone)

patell/o

patella (kneecap)

fibul/o, tibi/o

fibula, tibia (bones of the lower leg)

tars/o

tarsals (ankle bones)

calcane/o

calcaneus (heel bone)

metatars/o

metatarsals (bones of the feet)

ankyl/o

stiff

arthr/o

articulation, joint

-asthenia

weakness

burs/o

bursa

calc/i

calcium

chondr/o

cartilage

de-

down, from, reversing

meta-

change or next in series

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendon

Musculoskeletal

the body's skeletal and muscle system; provides protection, support, and movement to the body

Parietal bone

Temporal bone

Frontal bone

Occipital bone

Ethmoid bone

Sphenoid bone

Maxilla bone

Mandible bone

Cervical vertebrea

Designated as C1-C7; pertaining to the neck

Thoracic vertebrae

Designated as T1-T12

Lumbar vertebrae

Designated as L1-L5; pertaining to the lower back

Coccygeal vertebrae

Cartilage

a specialized type of dense connective tissue that is elastic but strong and that can withstand considerable pressure or tension

Articulation

(Also known as a joint) is the place of union between two or more bones

Synovial joints

are joints that have cavities between articulating bones

Bursae

sacs of fluid located in areas of friction, especially in the joints

Extension

straightens a limb and the opposite movement

Flexion

bends a limb

Rotation

the movement of a bone around its own axis

Circumduction

a circular movement of a limb at the far end

Fascia

the term used for the fibrous membrane that covers, supports, and separated muscles

Fascial

pertaining to the fascia

Tendons

bands of strong fibrous tissue that attach the muscles to the bones

Lupus Erythematosus

an autoimmune disease that involves connective tissue; named for the characteristic butterfly rash that apears across the bridge of the nose

Gout

inflammation of the joints resulting from hyperuricemia

Saromas

cancers that arise from connective tissue, such as muscle or bone

Multiple Myeloma

a disease characterized by the presence of many tumor masses in the bone and bone marrow; usually progressive and generally fatal

Osteitis Deformans

a skeletal disease of the elderly that is characterized by chronic bone inflammation

Dislocation

the displacement of a bone from a joint

Fracture

the breaking of a bone, usually from sudden injury

Simple fracture

the bone is broken but does not puncture the skin surface

Compound fracture

the broken bone is visible through an opening in the skin

Sprain

an injury to a joint that causes pain and disability, with the severity depending on the degree of the injury to ligaments or tendons

Strain

an excessive use of a part of the body to the extent that it is injures or trauma to a muscle caused by violent contraction or excessive forcible stretch

Paraplegia

paralysis of the lower portion of the body and of both legs

Quadriplegia

is paralysis of the arms and legs

Herniated disk

can press on the spinal cord or on a spinal nerve, causing pain

Spina Bifida

congenital abnormality characterized by defective closure of the bones of the spine; can allow herniation of the spinal cord

Scoliosis

lateral curvature of the spine

Kyphosis

exaggerated curvature of the spine from front to back; commonly known as humpback or hunchback

Reduction

the pulling of broken fragments into alignment

Antiinflammatories

generally used to reduce inflammation and pain, especially drugs classified as NSAIDs

Antiarthritics

various forms of therapy that relieve the symptoms of arthrits

Osteoid

resembling bone

Myelofibrosis

replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue

Osteoarthritis

a chronic disease involving the bones and joints

Osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone, especially the bone marrow

Chondrectomy

excision of cartilage

Joint

articulation

Bursae

sacks of fluid located in areas of friction, a specially in the joints

Polyarthritis

inflammation of more than one joint

Closed Reduction

pulling the broken ends of a bone into alignment by manipulation without surgery

Chondrosarcoma

a malignant tumor composed of cartilage

Crainioplasty

surgical repair of the skull

Costectomy

excision of a rib

Arthroscopy

visualization of the interior of the joint

Arthritis

inflammation of a joint

Craniotomy

incision of the crainum

Substernal

below the breastbone

Costoverebral

pertaining to a rib and vertebra

Orthopedist

the physician who specializes in disorders of the skeletal and muscular systems

Myasthenia Gravis

a disease characterized by great muscular weakness

Tarsoptosis

prolapse of the ankle

Ankylosed Spine

a condition in which the whole spine is stiffened

Arthrocentesis

the puncture of a joint space with a needle, usually done to remove excess fluid

Tendoplasty

surgical repair of a tendon

Myocele

facial hernia

Spondylitis

inflammation of the vertebrae

Crainectomy

excision of a portion of the skull

Intercostal

between the ribs

Spondylomalacia

softening of the vertebrae

Carpophalangeal

pertaining to the wrist and fingers

Rachialgia

painful spine

Sacral

does not pertain to a pelvic bone

Patellofemoral

kneecap and the thigh bone

Osteomalacia

a skeletal disorder in adults characterized by a disturbance in bone metabolism and commonly caused by a deficiency of vitamin D

Myelitis

inflammation of the bone marrow or the spinal cord

Laminectomy

relieves the pain caused by a herniated disk

Metatarsals

both are located between the toes and the bones of the ankle

Osteochondritis

inflammation of the bone and cartilage

Arthroscope

instrument used in arthroscopy

Myodynia/Myalgia

muscle pain

Cerebrospinal

pertain to the brain and the spine

Hematopoiesis

production of blood cells

Myelosuppression

suppression of the bone marrow

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