###
•show larger area map and has bigger scale (1:50 000)

•shows physical and man-made features

•shows less detail but has a a key

•more expensive to make

What are the characteristics of a topographical map?

### A Orthophoto map is a birds eye view picture map combined with a topographical map

What is a Orthophoto map?

###
•smaller area map, has smaller scale but the picture is enlarged of a certain area (1:10 000)

•shows more detail

•is in black and white

•has no key

•cheaper

What are the characteristics of a Orthophoto map?

### The amount by which the represented reality has been reduced on a map

What Is the definition of scale?

### This is the the amount by which represented reality has been reduced and is shown as a fraction eg. 1: 50 000

What is a fraction scale?

### A straight line marked off in cm's representing the ground distance in km

What is a linear scale?

### 1:50 000 = 1cm on the map is equal to 50 000cm on the ground in reality

What is an example of a word scale?

###
There are four ways:

•contour lines= all places on this line are above sea-level

•spot height= the exact height of the dot, is equal to 1 decimal place

•trigonmetric beacon= trig beacon no. Is measured in meters above sea-level

•bench mark= the point on the road above sea level

How many ways can altitude can be expressed and what are they?

### The point of intersection between 2 lines of longitude an lines of latitude

What is a grid reference?

### Grid references are used to give exact locations of particular places on the map.

What are grid references used for?

### Latitude is always south and longitude is always east

What is specific with grid referencing in south Africa?

### An approximate way it describing the position of one place in relation to another.

What is direction?