What is Erikson's psychosocial crisis of Initiative vs. Guilt?
Ages 3-6 when preschool children eagerly begin and direct new projects and activities but sometimes feel bad when their efforts result in failure or criticism
What is the initiative in Erikson's third stage of psychosocial crisis of Initiative vs. Guilt?
a willingness to take on responsibilities and learn new skills
What is the guilt in Erikson's third stage of psychosocial crisis of Initiative vs. Guilt?
feelings of failure and becoming anxious when trying new things
What can most toddlers do by age 2 re: self concept?
1) state their own name
2) identify themselves in the mirror
3) distinguish and label themselves in pix
4) include other children of same sex and age
What does self awareness result from?
formulation of own plans and goals
adults react positively to attempts
Self esteem is based on ____
Self concept is more
How is self esteem different in younger and older children?
Younger children - revolves around feeling good or bad
Older children - comparison to peers
What is the difference between self concept and self esteem?
self concept refers to the mental picture we develop about ourselves
self esteem refers to the value we attach to the mental pictures of ourselves
What is meant by preschoolers having a global evaluation of themselves?
they think they are either good or bad at something
What combination of 2 qualities can self esteem be understood by?
1) worthiness- feelings of being valued
2) competence- feelings of being effective
What is the Defensive I category re: self esteem?
i.e. spoiled, stuck up, or self centered
What is the Defensive II category re: self esteem?
ie. performance anxiety, worry about acheivements
What combination equals high self esteem?
What are the 3 stages of gender identity?
1) gender labeling (typing)- 30 months - labeling themselves and others according to gender group. socializing
2) gender stability- 3-4 years- gender is stable over time
3) gender constancy- 4-5 years- gender does not change despite changes in appearance or activities
T/F Children's stereotypes influence what they remember
children remember info that fits their stereotypic beliefs
What is the major area of study in the biological theory of gender development?
actions of hormones, such as, androgens
What do prenatal androgens cause?
masculinize the brain as it develops
causing more aggression and male typical behaviors
What is the basis of social learning?
children learn gender roles through 2 processes:
reinforced and punished
observing and imitating
What are the 2 processes children learn gender roles with social learning?
1) direct learning
What is direct learning?
gender roles are learned from the rewards and punishments they receive
Who is responsible for cognitive theories of gender development?
What did Kohlberg believe?
as children learn about their gender group, they show stronger stereotypic behavior, pay more attention to same sex models, have better memory for stereotypic info
What is gender schema theory and what theory does it fall under?
mental representations about the sexes to guide behavior and thinking
What is schematic consistency?
tendency of children's behavior and thinking to match their schemas
children pay more attention to and better remember information if it is relevant to their own gender group
What is emotion regulation?
ability to alter emotional responses to a situation
T/F Emotion regulation includes heightening the expression of an emotion as well as dampening it
What are display rules?
rules governing what type of emotion should or should not be displayed given the situation
What are 2 temperamental dimensions that underlie emotion regulation?
1) emotional intensity
2) regulatory process
What is emotional intensity?
reflecting differences in the way children respond to emotional events
What is regulatory process?
reflecting differences in processes that allow children to voluntarily inhibit, focus, and/or shift their attention or behavior
What are 3 reasons frequency of conflicts increases among preschoolers?
1) parent's attempts to establish household routines
2) children's developing sense of autonomy
3) children hold others responsible for their actions
What is the most uncommon way children respond to conflict?
How do responses to anger change as a child matures?
1) language develops
2) Increased social understanding leads to cooperative solutions
What is aggression defined as?
behavior intended to harm or injure another
To be aggressive, a child must understand what 4 things?
1) others can feel pain
2) their actions can cause distress
3) which actions do what and how to carry them out
4) can be used to get another child to do what they want
What is relational aggression and who is more likely to display it?
damaging someone's relationship with others by withdrawing friendship
ie. excluding someone from a group
Girls are more likely to display this, bc they are more focused on establishing relationships
What is prosocial behavior?
voluntary actions intended to benefit another person
What are prosocial emotions?
caring and empathy
What is empathy?
matching another person's emotional state
ie. feeling bad because someone else feels bad
What is sympathy?
feeling sorry or concerned for other people bc of their emotional state or condition
Name 5 ways parents can influence prosocial behavior?
- warm, secure relationships with caregivers
- talking to children @ prosocial activities
- watching caregivers' actions
- behaving in prosocial ways
- not using physical punishment
What is internalization?
obedience is based on internal controls and standards that the child incorporated on his own expectations of himself
What is compliance?
obedience brought on by external factors
When is discipline most effective?
2) does not threaten child's well-being
3) occurs as soon as possible after the child's misbehavior
What are the 3 types of discipline?
1) Power assertion
2) Love withdrawal
3) Inductive reasoning
What is power assertion?
attempts by parents to use physical force or threats to change behavior
i.e. physical punishment, taking away privileges or possessions
T/F Reinforcing good behavior is a type of power assertion.
bc it is based on a difference in power between parents and their children
What is love withdrawal discipline?
parents attempts to gain obedience by ignoring or isolating the child, withholding affection, or expressing lack of love for a child
Is love withdrawal effective?
yes, in the short term, but not the long-term
What is inductive reasoning?
disciplinary technique in which parents use reasoning and verbal communication for the purpose of changing the child's behavior
i.e explanations of rules and standards expected, moral persuasion, personal appeals, explanations of consequences, character attributions
What are the affects of inductive reasoning discipline?
children are more prosocial and popular
they have more internalized values and acceptable behavior
Who was responsible for identifying 2 important parenting characteristics?
What are the 2 parenting characteristics Baumrind studied?
What is demandingness?
tendency to exert firm control over children
requiring them to act in mature and appropriate ways
What is responsiveness?
tendency to be warm, accepting, and willing to take into account the wishes and feelings of the child
What are the 4 parenting styles?
3) Authoritative ** Best
What is authoritarian parenting style?
High demandingness, Low Responsiveness
parents try to shape, control, and judge the behaviors and attitudes of their children according to rigid standards or conduct
What is permissive parenting style?
Low demandingness, high responsiveness
parent make few demands on their children
they are accepting and tolerant of their children's impulses and desires
What is uninvolved parenting style?
Low demandingness, low responsiveness
parents who make few demands on their children and are unresponsive or rejecting as well
What is authoritative parenting style?
High demandingness, High Responsiveness
parenting which encourages verbal give-and-take and share with their children their reasons behind discipline and household rules
What parenting style values conformity to rules and exerts consistent firm, but not excessive control?
authoritative parenting style
What parenting style produces the best outcome for children?
authoritative parenting style bc of mutual give and take with child
How do preschoolers view parents?
What do the reactions of divorce depend on in young children?
way parents process situation
conditions associated with the break up
What is the crisis period of a divorce?
first 2 years following a divorce
What special needs should be addressed during the crisis period?
predictable daily structure
What gender in young children is affected more adversely by divorce?
boys, they show aggression and hostility
What factors affect child's adjustment to divorce?
1) amount of conflict between parents
2) Effectiveness of the parents
3) Characteristics of the child
4) Relationship of child with the noncustodial parent
What are the preferences of peer relationships among preschoolers?
Play with same age
based on equality and mutual give and take
T/F Early childhood friendships are very consistent.
False, they are very fluid
What are the 4 types of play?
1) functional play
2) constructive play
3) Pretend play
4) Formal games with rules
What is functional play?
children use their bodies
What is constructive play?
create something out of play
constructing from materials
What are the 5 forms of play Mildred Parten found related to level of involvement with other children?
1) solitary play
2) onlooker play
3) parallel play
4) associative play
5) cooperative play
What is solitary play?
lowest level of social play
child plays alone, but is surrounded by other children
What is onlooker play?
child watches another child or children playing, but does not participate
What is parallel play?
children play side by side the same activity, but separately
What is associative play?
play involves other children, but different goals
i.e. 2 children drawing pictures and commenting on each other's pix
What is cooperative play?
children engage in play with a common goal
What are 3 influences the quality of sibling relationships?
2) Parental treatment- favoritism
3) Family life events- stressful family situations
How many hours a day on average do families watch TV?
How many hours a day on average do preschoolers watch TV?