Triple Alliance (Central Powers)
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
Triple Entente (Allies)
France, Great Britain and Russia
The Domino Effect (how's the war start?)
1) Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
2) Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
3) Russia + Serbia VS. Germany + Austria-Hungary
4) Britain declared war on Germany after it invaded Belgium
Who was Canada's PM during WWI
Robert Borden (conservative)
Describe the feelings of Canadians at the beginning of the war.
- Most English-Canadians supported the war b/c of their strong ties with the UK
- Enthusiastic to sign up - and adventure!
- Women began to get more jobs b/c the men were leaving for war (ex. nurses, ambulance drivers, etc.)
Canadian Expeditionary Force
- Sam Hughes (British) - minister that set it up
- fought for the most part independently from Britain
War Measures Act (WWI)
- Borden introduced the War Measures Act to meet the demands of war
- Said that the govt. could do anything necessary for the security of Canada
The Schlieffen Plan
German plan to invade Belgium, then France to capture Paris, then Russia. (Trench warfare developed)
What weaponry did trench warfare lead to?
- Machine guns (mainly)
- Planes were used to spy on enemies
- Tanks to break through barbed wire
- Poison gas
Battle of Ypres
- April 1915 (Belgium near Flander's Field)
- 1st time Chlorine Gas was used by the Germans
- Canadians fought alongside the French
Battle of the Somme
- July 1916 (France)
- Canadians fought w British and French forces
- Were killed by the German machine guns
- Over a million casualties
Battle of Vimy Ridge
- April 1917
- Canadians led the assault by General Byng
- Great victory for Canada!
- Defining moment for Canada in the war for independence and Pride
- Belgium, 1917
- Canadians called to retake the ridge
- led by General Currie
- Allies won but very high Canadian casualties
German submarines equipped with torpedoes, which destroyed war ships (British - Lusitania)
How did the war effect the home-front?
- War was good for the economy (1916 the economy was booming).
- Borden ran many factories to construct ships, airplanes and shells
- Workers later became frustrated by the low wages
Govt. promised that the citizens would get their money back, plus interest
Individuals paid 3% of their income
Why did Canada borrow from other countries?
- Victory bonds and income tax were not enough
1918, govt was deep in debt and forced to borrow money from countries, especially the US.
- Dependance on the US
What year could women vote?
1918, all Canadian women have the right to vote in Fed. Elections
December 1917, French vessel carrying dynamite hit another ship and exploded (killed many)
What is conscription and who supported it who didn't?
- Borden supported it (Military Service Act)
- Laurier was against it
- French-Canadians against it, felt no patriotic connection to Britain or France (angry to be forced to fight)
- Farmers in Prairies against it needed to work on their farms
- Labourers led the opposition
- Created French-English tension
Military Voters Act
Allowing men/women overseas to vote
Wartime Election Act
Allowing all women directly related to a serviceman to vote (didn't last).
The Hundred Days Campaign
- Final month of the war where Canadians led by Currie broke through German lines and won important battle.
- German Kaiser fled to Holland
Paris Peace Conference
- the Allies and Germany met in Paris to discuss a peace agreement
- Borden held a seat for Canada
Treaty of Versailles
- set out the terms of the peace agreement in 1919
- created the League of Nations
- Put all the blame on Germany (angered German people)
League of nation
- based on the principle of collective security
- would punish and aggressive nation through economic sanctions
- US didn't join