Animal Nutrition KSU

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Quiz 2, Test 1

prepare food for absorption

main function of GI tract

monogastric

non-ruminant

4 parts of small intestines

duodenum, jujenum, lleum

3 terms for the mouth of a pig

prehension- getting food into the mouth
mastication- chewing
bolus formation- lubrication

salivary lipase

enzyme secreted in pig to break down fats

salivary amylase

enzyme secreted in pig to break down carbs

4 types of teeth

incisors-cut
canine- tear
premolars and molars- chewing

3 types of salivary glands

2 parotid glands
2 submaxillary glands
sublingual gland

parotid glands

behind the cheek
50% of saliva production in cows
(submaxillary is on jawline, sublingual is under the tounge)

main secretion of glands

sodium-bicarbonate
others include mucus and watery fluid

esophagus

hollow muscular tube, transports feed to sotmach via peristalsis

peristalsis

what gets feed to the stomach

acid secretion of HCl

main function of the pig stomach (along with mixing and secretion of a few enzymes)

4 regions of stomach

esohageal, cardiac, fundic, pyloric, pylorus
in pig

esophageal

region in stomach that serves no function besides connecting stomach to esophagus. (no secretion)
in pig

cardiac

region in stomach with mucus secretion, after esophageal in pig

fundic

region in stomach with acid and enzyme secretion
in pig

pyloric

region with mucus secretion, last region in stomach
in pig

parietal

cells that secrete HCl and intrinsic factor

peptide

pepsin cleaves _____ bonds

chyme

after pepsin cleaves protein into peptide, it leaves the stomach as _____.

3 parts of small intestine

duodenum, jujunum, lleum (50 ft).

small intestine

has folds to increase surface area, lots of blood vessels

villi

the folds in the s. intestine are called _____

portal

system that deals with getting carbs and amino acids into circulation. Converge and circulate through villi, goes to liver

lymph

system (central lacteal), deals with absorbing fat.

pancreas

digests and regulates secretions in pig

endocrine

releases material into circulatory system, released after a meal or after fasting in pig

insulin

released after a meal, stores energy

glucagon

released after fasting, breaks down energy

exocrine

specifically secretes into tube/duct that takes it to specific location, secretes pancreatic enzyems and NaOH (increases pH) makes it neutral

pepsin

breaks down protein

amylase

breaks down starch

duodenum

secretion site in s. intestine, doesn\\\'t absorb nutrients, from pancreas & gall bladder in pig

jejunum and lleum

2 major sites of nutrient absorbtion, some enzyme secretion in pig

gall bladder

secretes bile salts into duodeum that emulsify fats and aid in fat absorption. important to cholesterol metabolism in pig

cecum

appendix, some fermentation occurs in pigs

colon

(l. intestine) absorbs water, bacteria fermentation of high fiber ingredients, synthesis of B and K vitamins in pig

taste buds

chickens have no _____ (allows us to not make chicken feed taste as good)

crop

esphagus leads to ____ in chickens. moistening reservoir, fermentation, limited enzyme breakdo wn

proventriculus

rapid rate of passage, acid and enzyme secretion. previously in crop.

gizzard

(ventriculus), where most digestion takes place, mixes and grinds for particle size reduction
acid and enzyme digestion takes place.

small intestine

structure and function of it similar to pigs

shorter

poultry have ____ digestive systems than swine

faster

rate of passage is ____ in poultry than in swine

microbial contributions

poultry have smaller capacity in l. intestine so ___ ___ are smaller than in swine.

less

poultry will get ____ calories out of feed than pigs

maltase

enzyme that breaks down maltose into glucose

amylase

substrate of it is carbohydrates (sugar)

pepsin and tripsen

substrate of these two are proteins

lypase

substrate of this is fat

multicompartmental

ruminants have a _____ stomach (divided into 4 parts)

microbial fermentation

__ __ allows cows to digest and use high fiber ingredients

selective eaters

ruminants are known as ____ ____

dental pad

in ruminants, above bottom incisors

saliva

has few enzyms, has an ANTIFOAM

antifoam

prevents bloating

buffered

saliva is highly ____ for maintaining pH

80

stomach of ruminant extends from diaphragm to pelvis, fills ___% of body

rumen

aka paunch, largest part of stomach, fermentation vat

reticulum

honeycomb, no enzyme secretion or acid, *transfers to mouth, rumen, or omasum

hardware disease

___ ___ happens when a piece of metal eaten and logged into reticulum and pushes it through into the diaphram and punctures heart

reticular groove

in calves to help milk escape fermentation, reticulum folds and blocks off rumen

omasum

manyplies, muscular laminae studded with papillae. reduces particle size of digesta water absorption

abomasum

true stomach, acid and enzyme secretion, 1st glandular portion of GT

glandular

means it actually secretes stuff

products of fermentation by microbes

B vitamins synthesis
amino acids and protein synthesis
breakdown of carbs releases volatile fatty acids (VFA)

3 primary VFAs

acetic acid
propionic acid
butyric acid

acetic acid

volatile fatty acid that contains 2 carbons

propionic acid

volatile fatty acid that contains 3 carbons

butyric acid

volatile fatty acid that contains 4 carbons

rumination

evolutionary development allows animal to consume forage rapidly then re-chew at later time

eructation

belching, average gas production 1 l/min for high concentray, 30 l/hr with chopped hay

bloat

if free gas becomes frothy, ___ occurs and can be fatal

hindgut

horses have ____ fermentation

foregut

consists of mouth, esophagus, stomach, and s. intestine

30-40

percent that the foregut takes up in a horse

60-70

percent that hindgut takes up in a horse, opposite for a cow

before

cattle fermentation takes place ____ the true stomach so they utilize bacteria as protein source

after

horses fermentation takes place ____ true stomach so bacteria cannot be absorbed from large intestine

hormones

GIT in horses secretes more ___ than any other single organ

gastrin

produced in gastric mucosa cells in hourses, stimulates *acid secretion by stomach (time to eat/digest/absorb)

cholecystokinin

CCK, presence of chyme and acid in duodenum stimulates its secretion

gastric emptying

CCK regulates ____ _____

secretin

inhibits *acid secretion, stimulates bicarbonate production, presence of chyme and acid in duodenum stimulate its secretions

gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)

secreted from duodenum in response to high glucose concentrations (AFTER meal)

insulin release

major function of gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)

somatostatin

inhibits release of CCK, gastrin, and secretin.
sets things back to starting levels.

ghrelin

produced by special cells in stomach
regulates *Growth Hormone releasement, increases food intake and weight gain

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