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A 20-dr vial of digitalis contains approximately how many ounces?

2.5

How much drug does 100ml of a 10% solution contain?

10g

You're asked to prepare a bottle of heparinized saline with 4iu heparin/ml to flush indwelling catheters. The stock sodium heparin solution contains 1000iu/ml. How much heparin must be added to each 250ml bottle of sterile physiologic saline to make the flushing solution?

1ml

You're asked to prepare 20mEq of KCL for addition to a 1L bag of LRS. The solution contains 30mEq/15ml. How much solution should you draw into a syringe to add to the fluid bag?

10ml

A growth in the skin is 2 inches in diameter. What is the diameter of the growth in centimeters?

5

A dosage of 1Tbs every other day requires approximately how many ml for a 2 week supply?

105

Fenbendazole liquid is available as a 22.2% concentration, & a 45lb German shorthaired pointer needs 50mg/lb. Approximately how many tsp does it require?

2

You are asked to draw up 2ml of 50% dextrose in water to give to a hypoglycemic kitten. What volume should you draw into the syringe?

2ml

A 20kg dog w/ a PCV of 40% has 300ml of blood collected. The RBCs are seperated from the serum. What volume of saline would you add to the RBCs to make a PCV of 50%?

120ml

A 500kg horse weighs approximately how many pounds?

1100

If you are asked to administer 0.1mg of epinephrine to an animal w/ threatened cardiac collapse, how much of a 1:10,000 solution should you inject?

1ml

A commercial dog food is 420kcal/cup. A dog weighing 60lb fed at a rate of 70kcal/lb/day should be fed how many cups at each meal if fed twice a day?

5cups

1 metric ton of livestock feed is equal to how many pounds?

2204 pounds

____are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but of much shorter wavelengths.

x-rays

Short wavelengths have a ____frequency than long wavelengths.

higher

Long wavelengths have a ____ frequency than short wavelengths.

lower

What is the number of cycles of the wave that pass a stationary point per second?

frequency

What 3 small particles make up an atom?

protons, electrons, & neutrons

What is the process in which an electron is moved to a higher energy level w/i an atom?

excitation

What is the process in which an outer electron is completely removed from the atom so the atom is left positively charged?

ionization

mAs

milliamperage per second

kVp

kilovolatge peak

When it comes to the x-ray tube what does mAs control?

the amount of electrons released

density

When it comes to the x-ray tube kVp controls what?

the speed of the electrons released

contrast

If you need to alter the contrast of a radiographic image, you should change the what?

kVp

If you need to alter the density of a radiographic image, you should change what?

mAs

What is the formula for mAs?

milliamperage*seconds

What is the formula for kVp called?

Sante's Rule

Sante's Rule

2(thickness in cm)+SID+Grid Factor=kVp

SID

Source Image Distance (usually 40cm)

Somatic Damage

damage caused by radiation that happens to the "victim" during their lifetime

Genetic Damage

damage caused by radiation that affects futer generations

MPD

Maximum Permissable Dose

What is the MPD for an occupationally exposed person?

0.05Sv/year

What is the MPD for a nonoccupationally exposed person?

0.005Sv/year

What is the device that measures the amount of radiation a staff member receives called?

dosimeter

No body part of a radiographer should be placed in the __________ even when wearing led gloves.

Primary Beam

Secondary radiation is also known as what?

scatter radiation

A grid helps to reduce secondary radiation. A grid should be used for ___cm & above.

10

When labeling a radiograph, what information should be included?

Patient name, owner made, date, left/right marker, owner name, & clinic or doctor name

What is the TPR of a dog?

T=100-102.5F, P=60-80/min, R=10-30/min

Smaller dogs will have faster heartrates than larger dogs.

What is the normal TPR of a cat?

T=100-102.5F, P=120-240/min, R=15-30/min

What is the normal TPR of a horse?

T=99-100.5F, P=30-45/min, R=8-20/min

What is the normal TPR of cattle?

T=100-102.5F, P=60-80/min, R=8-20/min

What is the normal TPR of a goat?

T=102-104F, P=60-90/min, R=16-24/min

What is the normal TPR of sheep?

T=102-104F, P=60-90/min, R=16-24/min

The order is to add 30mEq of KCI to 1500ml od D5W. You have available a solution of KCI 3mEq/ml. How many millimeters of the KCI solution would you add to the bag of D5W?

10ml

The order is for atropine0.3mg. You have available atropine 0.5mg/ml How many ml will you administer?

0.6ml

You are to gove penicillin 1.3million units STAT. On hand you have a vial labeled, peninillin 10,000,000 units/10ml. How manyml will you administer?

0.13ml

The order is for ampicillin suspension 275mg every 6hr. You have available ampicillin suspension 50mg/ml. How many ml will you administer?

5.5ml q 6hr

The order is for Clavamox 1g PO q 6hr. You have available Clavamox 500mg tablets. How many tablets will you administer?

2tablets q 6hr

The order is for erythromycin 125mg via gastric tube TID. You have available erythromycin 250mg/5ml. How many ml will you deliver?

2.5ml Q 8hr

The order is for unipen 750mg IM q 6hr. The vial reads, Unipen add 4.0ml sterile water to make 1g/2.5ml. How many ml of the reconstituted solution will you administer?

1.87ml IM q 6hr

The order is for Capoten 100mg. You have available Capoten 0.1g tablets. How many tablets will you administer

1

The order is for diphenhydramine 20mg IM now. You have available diphenhydramine 25mg/ml. How many ml will you administer?

0.8ml

The order is for acepromazine 7.5mg PO BID. You have available acepromazine 5mg tablets. How many tablets will you administer?

1.5 tablets BID

The patient is to receive atropine sulfate 0.4mg. The label on the vial of atropine reads 0.2mg/0.5ml. How many ml will you administer?

1ml

The order is to administer morphine sulfate 5mg IM q 3hr. Available is morphine sulfate 10mg/ml. How many ml should you administer?

0.5ml IM q 3hr

The order is to administer Phenegran 20mg IM STAT. Available is Phenegran 50mg/ml. How many ml should you administer?

0.4ml

The order is to administer phenylbutazone. Each tablet is 0.5g. How many tableta equal 1500mg?

3

The order is to administer V-Cillin K 300,000 units by mouth four times a day. Available is V-Cillin K 200,000 units/5ml. How many ml will you administer per dose?

7.5ml

In the heart, depolarization occurs when ________ moves into the cells.

sodium

What is the name for the triangular region of the bladder where the ureters and urethra are connected to the bladder?

trigone

When looking at the bottom of a horse's hoof, what is the name of the triangular shaped structure behind the sole of the foot?

frog

Where on a primate's body are they tested for tuberculosis?

eyelid

Through which structures does light pass as it moves from the outside to the inside of the eye?

Cornea, pupil, lens, retina

Erythropoetin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone produced mainly by the:

kidney

What is the neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle?

Acetylcholine

Which type of cell is rich in histamine and heparin?

mast cell

What maintains the membrane potential in excitable cells?

neurons

When discussing the equine hoof, which structure produces cells that become the hoof wall?

Coronary band

Chronic exposure to what hormone leads to a pyometra?

progeterone

Nerve axons which are covered with a white sheath are known as what?

Myelinated

Which bone articulates with the patella?

femur

What structure connects the kidneys to the bladder?

ureter

Approximately what percentage of body weight should a horse consume in forage (i.e. hay) per day?

2%

What is the term that describes nerve fibers that carry an impulse TOWARD the brain?

afferent

Release of what molecule from the sarcoplasmic reticulum ultimately helps to achieve muscle contraction?

Adenosine triphosphate

What is the name for the muscle group that includes the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius?

Quadriceps

What term describes an enlarged thyroid gland?

goiter

Which part of the brain coordinates motor activity?

cerebellum

Disease of what part of the brain can cause a hypermetric gait?

cerebellum

Organelles reside in what compartment of the cell?

cytoplasm

What is the proper terminology to describe a laceration under the right forelimb paw?

palmer aspect

In what order does an electrical impulse travel through the heart?

SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

What is the name for the blood pressure measurement when the ventricles of the heart are relaxed?

Diastolic pressure

The rear end of an animal is referred to as what region?

caudal

What is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney?

nephron

Where are the anal sacs located?

Inside the anus at the 4 and 8 o'clock positions

What is the proper order of intestinal segments?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

Which organ is responsible for producing most of the digestive enzymes used to breakdown food?

pancreas

Where is the thymus located?

In the cranial mediastinum in the chest

What is the term used to describe the junction between the skin and hoof of the horse's distal limb?

coronet

The shoulder joint links which two bones?

Scapula and humerus

What is the fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye called?

Aqueous humor

What type of gas is formed due to rumenal fermentation?

methane

What is the average cloacal temperature of a chicken?

107F

The lining of the urinary bladder is composed of what cell type?

Transitional cell

What structure in the eye is responsible for focus?

lens

Impulses are carried away from the neuronal cell body by what structure?

axon

What type of muscle is the heart?

Striated muscle, involuntary

What is the vertebral formula for dogs and cats?

Cervical 7, Thoracic 13, Lumbar 7, Sacral 3

The dog's abdominal region may also be referred to as what?

ventral region

Which joint allows rotational movement of the head from side to side (from right to left or left to right)?

Atlantoaxial

You are reading a report from an oncologist and read that the popliteal lymph nodes were enlarged. Where are these nodes located?

In the caudal portion of the hindlimbs at the level of the stifle and back of the thigh

When dogs are mating, the male dog "ties" with the female so that the penis cannot be removed from the vagina for a period of time. This is due to the swelling of what structure?

Bulbis glandis

Purkinje fibers are found in what organ?

heart

The correct order of the ruminant digestive system in regards to the chambers of their stomach is:

Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum

The pancreas connects to which part of the intestine?

duodenum

What is the most rostral structure of the eye?

cornea

What part of the brain controls heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure?

brain stem

Harderian glands are associated with what part of the anatomy?

eyes

Name the heart chamber responsible for pumping blood toward the lungs.

right ventricle

In what part of the intestinal tract is nutrient absorption the greatest?

jejunum

Parrots have the unique ability to mimic sound. What anatomical structure in birds is responsible for producing sound?

syrinx

Bacteria differ from animal cells in that they lack what?

a true membrane-bound nucleus

Which cell structure is responsible for producing ATP?

mitochondria

The main stimulus for ventilation is the partial pressure of what gas?

carbon dioxide

Where is the sinoatrial node located?

right atrium

The sacculus rotundus is part of the intestinal anatomy of what species?

rabbit

Cardiac Output (CO) is determined by what variables?

Stroke volume x Heart rate

Smooth muscle is found in what regions?

Hollow organs

What is the main function of a red blood cell?

Carry oxygen to the tissues

What is the name of the portion of the stomach that attaches to the esophagus?

cardia

Ingesta must travel through which opening as it passes through the stomach into the duodenum?

Pyloric sphincter

How can you differentiate a male tortoise from a female?

The plastron is concave in males

When a calf is born, milk goes immediately to the omasum and bypasses the rumen and reticulum. Which anatomic structure makes this possible?

Esophageal groove

What anatomic structure is the passageway for both the respiratory and digestive systems?

Pharynx

Chyme is a part of what bodily function?

digestion

The bottom of a tortoise shell is called what?

plastron

Where is the thyroid gland located?

vetral neck

In small animals, what is the name of the blind-ended pouch that is part of the large intestine and connects the ileum with the colon?

cecum

Where would you find the Loop of Henle?

kidney

How many lumbar vertebrae do dogs and cats have?

7

What is an erythrocyte?

red blood cell

The tibiotarsal joint may also be referred to as what?

hock

What neurotransmitter is associated with the sympathetic nervous system?

epinephrine

You are making serial dilutions of a sample in the laboratory. You start by making a 1:5 dilution of a serum sample. You then take this new solution and make a serial 1:5 dilution of it. What is the dilution ratio of this new solution?

1:25

A 12-pound cat needs Clavamox drops at 14 mg/kg BID. The solution is 62.5 mg/mL. How many mLs should this cat receive twice daily?

1.2ml

A 20-kg patient is currently receiving 52 ml/hr of Lactated Ringer's Solution. The clinician has requested that 2 mg/kg/day of metoclopramide be added to the bag. Metoclopramide is available as a 5 mg/ml solution. How many milliliters do you need to add to a 1 liter bag?

6.5ml

A dog presents in congestive heart failure. You are asked to administer 2 mg/kg of furosemide IV. The concentration of furosemide is 50 mg/mL. The dog weighs 25 pounds. How many milliliters should you administer to this patient?

0.44ml

Calculate the standard maintenance fluid rate for a 30-pound dog. How many milliliters per hour should the dog receive?

34ml/hr

Assuming the daily maintenance fluid requirement is 60 ml/kg/day, how many milliliters per hour should a 4400 lb animal receive per minute to achieve this requirement?

Approximately 80 ml/min

A 120-pound Great Dane has presented with Gastric Dilatation Volvulus. The clinician has asked you to quickly prepare the drug protocol. As a premedication, the dog is to receive 0.08 mg/kg of Hydromorphone. How many milligrams will you administer?

4.4mg

If you have 25% mannitol and you wish to give 500 mg per kg to a 15 kg dog, how much should you give?

600ml

How many milliliters of 25% dextrose should be added to 1 L of 0.9% saline to make a 5% dextrose solution?

200ml

A patient has come into the hospital after being stung by a bee. The patient's muzzle is severely swollen, and the doctor has ordered a dose of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to be given intravenously. The patient weight is 30 kg, and the dose is 0.5 mg/kg. The concentration of the dexamethasone is 4 mg/ml. How many milliliters is this patient to receive?

3.75ml

How many milliliters of 50% dextrose should be added to one liter of 0.9% saline in order to make it a 2.5% dextrose solution?

50ml

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