Movement starts at the spinous process
Where muscle/ligaments attach
Control movement at transverse process
Obstructs forward movement
Where spinal tap?
Exaggerated thoracic convexity
Step off at the affected spine (L5/S1) and prominent spinous process of L5.
Inflammatory joint disease affects upper cervical spine, degenerative joint disease targets lower cervical spine.
Sciatic nerve irritation/entrapment -> back/butt pain radiating down thigh along what dermatomes?
Sacroiliac pain where?
Parous women and seronegative joint disease -> spondyloarthitis/ankylosing spondylitis.
Three joints for shoulder movement,
Ligaments at the shoulder joint (2)?
(prevent excess movement)
Muscles surrounding shoulder joint.
Rotator cuff muscles
Long head of biceps
Does the glenoid cavity prevent shoulder joint dislocation?
No. Gives very little stability (shallow)
What reduces friction between tendons and adjacent bone/joint capsule in the shoulder?
Bursae (sacs lined with synovial membrane)
What causes a flattened shoulder (2)?
Dislocation of the shoulder
Deltoid atrophy (axillary nerve lesion due to humerus neck fracture)
Where does the axillary nerve wrap around the humerus?
The neck of the humerus.
Winged scapula nerve association?
Long thoracic nerve lesion
Atrophy of which muscles can cause rotator cuff tear?
Swellings in the shoulder joint (2)?
Joint effusion (anterior)
Bulging under deltoid (subacromial bursa distension)
At what angle is the painful arc syndrome?
Abduction; between 10 - 120 degrees.
What constitutes a frozen shoulder (2)?
Reduced external rotation and abduction beyond 90 degrees.
Frozen shoulder is also called?
Adhesive capsulitis (severe restriction in movement)
Shoulder impingement syndrome includes (2)
rotator cuff tendonitis
Calcific supraspinatus tendinitis
Deposition of calcium in supraspinatus portion of musculotendinous rotator cuff
Where is the pain in calcific supraspinatus tendinitis
Abduction; 50-130 degrees (contact between inflamed supraspinatus and acromion)
Where is the rotator cuff tear
abductionl 0-90 degrees (>90 use deltoid)
How to test rotator cuff tear
Shoulder drop test
Rotator cuff tendonitis presentation
Night pain and when reaching overhead
Test rotator cuff tendonitis
Patient extend elbow while doctor forcibly flexes patients arm
Difference between bicipital tendinitis and impingement syndrome?
Bicipital tendinitis has no restriction in abduction or foward flexion of shoulder
Test bicipital tendonitis
Pain during resistance of forearm supination.
Impingement syndrome early and late symptoms.
Early: mild pain in front of shoulder, radiating to lateral arm
Late: pain at night, restricted motion, loss of strength, difficulties in performing activities
Three joints of the elbow?
What causes increase in the carrying angle?
Misaligned healing of the supracondylar fracture
What is golfers elbow?
What nerve can be damaged in golfers elbow?
What is tennis elbow?
Lateral epicondylitis and degeneration of wrist extensors
What position yields pain in tennis elbow?
Dorsiflexion of the wrist (opening door or lifting glass)
Swelling between lateral epicondyle and olecranon
What stops the elbow from hyperextension?
Presence of elecranon process