spinal cord extends from
brainstem (obex) to conus medullaris (L1,L2) (L2 to be safest)
spinal cord length
2/3rds of vertebral column
where are the 2 bulges in the spinal cord
cervical (brachial, cervical plexuses)
lumbar (lumnbosacracl plexus)
Therefore, more CSF can occur here
Boundaries of the vertebral canal
vertebral body/ disc, pedicle, ______, lamina
Boundaries of the intervertebral foramen
Intervertebral foramen contents
spinal nerve root, dorsal root ganglion, the spinal artery of the segmental artery, communicating veins between the internal and external plexuses, recurrent meningeal (sinu-vertebral) nerves, and transforaminal ligaments.
what are the joints between adjacent vertebrae
2 facet joints: superior and inferior
1 symphisis: secondary cartilaginous joint
which ligament attaches transversely from the dens laterally
nucleus pulposus sits where?
in the center, but slightly posterior
sacral hiatus is at which level
S5 (in between the sacral cornua)
used for nerve blocks
through ligamentum flavum
# vertebrae, # spinal nerves
31 spinal nerves
specific spinal nerve breakdowns
pia mater makes up which two structures
communicate between spinal cord and autonomics
grey: from ganglia (post ganglionic)
white: to ganglia (preganglionic)
(both from vertebrals, posteirors could be from PICA)
segmental/ radicular arteries to spinal arteries come from
ascending cervical aa
posterior intercostal aa
how much from anterior spinal artery
artery of adamdiewicz
75% arises from the left between T8 and L1, usually via left intercostal artery
dura mater aka:
arachnoid and pia mater =
epidural space contains
fat and internal (epidural) vertebral plexus
subarachnoid space containes
CSF, connective tissue, vessels, spinal nerve rootlets
venous plexus in lumbar region that communicates with the venous plexuses in the vertebral column that are valveless
(prostate tumor could metastasize through here)
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