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Concentration Gradient

difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another

Receptor

Protein that detects signals and acts because of it

Diffusion

movement of molecules from a high concentration to low

Osmosis

diffusion of water molecules

solutions

more salt added to water: higher concentration of salt, lower concentration of water.

Isotonic

solution that has the same concentration of solutes that the cell has

Hypertonic

solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than a cell. water diffuses out of the cell and shrinks

Hypotonic

solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than the cell. water diffuses into the cell and expands.

Facilitated Diffusion

molecules diffuse through transported proteins b/c they can't diffuses through the cell membranes themselves.

Active Transport

uses energy to transport molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration

Exocytosis

moves substances out of the cell

Endocytosis

cells use energy to transport a materiel that is too large to cross the membrane

Phagocytosis

cell membrane grows out to surround large particles

Cytoplasm

jellylike material that contains the building block needed for life

Prokaryotic Cells

small and have no distinct internal parts

Eukaryotic Cells

have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

Organelle

a small part that carries out a specific job in a cell

Cytoskeleton

gives cell shape, support, and strength

Proteins

molecule used in all life function: reproduction, repair, and growth

ER

helps production of proteins and other molecules

Ribosomes

link amino acids to form proteins

Golgi Apparatus

changes, packaged, and transports cells to other parts in the cell

Vesicles

carry different molecules to where they are needed

Mitochondria

produce chemical energy that can be used by cells

Vacuoles

store materials in a cell: water, food molecules, enzymes, and ions

Lysomes

protects a cells by attacking incoming bacteria/viruses

Centrioles

help form cilia and flagella

Cell Wall

supports, shaped, and protects the cell

Chloroplasts

converts energy from the sun into chemical energy through photosynthesis

Cell Membrane

controls what comes into and goes out of the cell

Phospholipid

made of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and to fatty acid chains. interact w/ water

selective permeability

allows some material, but not all, to cross the cell membrane

Passive Transport

high concentration to low concentration

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