Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
Triple Entente (the Allies)
France, Britain and Russia
they saw militarism and war as an acceptable way to resolve conflicts and achieve their goals
Germany's motive for war
-believed it could win the war at this time
-wanted to be a major power in Europe, increased military, ships, and weapons
Britain's motive for war
-believed in the independence of sovereign states
-believed in curbing the ever-increasing strength of Germany
Russia's motive for war
-economic motive: access to an all-weather port
-its approach was to promote pan-slavism (uniting the Slavic people of the Balkans). In supporting, they wished to get access to the regions warm-water ports.
Austria-Hungary's motive for war
-wanted to maintain its multi-ethnic state
-wanted to solve the pan-slav problem once and for all
France's motive for war
-believed it had to maintain loyalty to the alliance system in order to remain a major power
Canada's motive for war
-automatically entered into war as part of the British Empire. Britain still controlled foreign policy of all its dominions.
-in 1914, most English speaking Canadians were of British origin, and they patriotically supported Britain.
-PM Borden initially offered Britain 15,000 troops, but later more than 30,000 volunteers signed up because:
-they felt patriotic
-they believed the war would be over by Christmas
-they were unemployed
Rough Timeline of starting of WWI
Jun 28 - Franz Ferdinand and his wife assassinate in Sarajevo, Bosnia
Jul 6 - Germany promises Austria-Hungary a Blank Cheque to support any military action in Serbia
Jul 23 - A-H delivers ultimatum to Serbia
Jul 26 - Russia mobilized armed forces in anticipation of war
Jul 28 - A-H rejects Serbia's partial acceptance of its demands and declares war
Jul 31 - Russia announces general mobilization
Aug 1 - Germany declares war on Russia
Aug 3 - Germany declares war on France
Aug 4 - Germany invades Belgium & Luxembourg to attack France
Britain declares war on Germany
Canada automatically in war
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
Canada's army of volunteers of 30,000
War Measures Act
(1914) Introduced by PM Borden introduced as "for security, defense, peace, order, and welfare of Canada"
- could intervene directly in the economy to control transportation, manufacturing, trade, and agricultural production
-limit freedom of Canadians
-suspended habeas corpus, police could detain people without laying charges
-could imprison or deport anyone deemed "enemy alien"
Volunteers that were turned away or held back
- women were considered too frail or too emotional, worked as nurses and ambulance drivers behind the front line
-initially aboriginals weren't accepted
-African and Japanese Canadians were reluctantly accepted
Post-traumatic stress disorder
soldiers suffered emotional trauma after returning home (shell shock or battle fatigue)
When: April 1915
What: Germans used chlorine gas and then killed the French and Canadian troops
Canadians first saw action in this battle
Outcome: over 6,000 Canadians killed, wounded or captured
*john mccrae wrote in flanders field
When: July 1916
What: Allies launched massive attack against a line of German trenches near the Somme River
Tanks were first used here
The shells that the Allied shelled on the German lines failed to attack
Commanders used tactics that were unsuccessful in trench warfare
Canadian: Newfoundland Regiment suffered 90% casualty rate
First time Canadian units fought as one!!! Became a symbol of Canadian independence. Canadian troops recognized as some of the best troops on the Western front
When: April 1917
Where: Vimy Ridge
What: Germans took over Vimy Ridge
Canadians chosen to lead assault on Vimy
Outcome: Canadians successful, 3,500 killed 7,000 injured
When: October 1917
Where: Passchendaele, Belgium
What: Canadian troops asked to attack Germans
Outcome: gained 7km of land and held their position until reinforcements arrived. Germans soon gained back their lost land.
100 Day Campaign
What: Thousands of German soldiers were stopped right outside of Paris by the Allies.
Canadian: were at the forefront of the Allied advancement.
This had a special meaning for Canadians. Canadian troops were in the forefront of the most difficult tasks of dislodging Germans from their defensive positions.
An armistice was signed in a railway car on Nov. 11, 1918 to stop the war. Corresponds to our date and time of our modern day Remembrance Day.
Women on Western Front
2800+ women served during WWI
They were part of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps working in hospital (on ships and overseas) and ambulances
Many killed or injured with bombs, gas, or artillery fire
Paris Peace Conference (1919)
-For the first time, Canada gained international recognition as an independent nation!!!-
After armistice, the leaders of Allies and other countries that won met in Paris to discuss terms of a peace agreement.
PM Borden demanded Canada have its own seat at the conference, and it eventually did.
Treaty of Versailles
-Germany had to agree to a War Guilt Clause, it had to accept that it was the sole cause of the war
-Had to pay war reparations of $30billion
-Army restricted size
-Austria and Germany forbidden to unite
League of Nations
-based on the principle of collective security (one member came under attack, the rest backs it up)
-PM Borden also won the right for Canada to become a member
-The USA refused to join
-The League could punish an aggressive nation by imposing economic sanctions against it. But it did not have a military force of its own to impose its decision on aggressor nations
Battle of Attrition
As a result from trench warfare. The first to wear out was the victor.
No Man's Land
The area between the trenches of two fighting armies. Where most soldiers died in combat.
Jammed easily in mud and dirt
-Submarines (had torpedoes which killed)
Allies developed convoy system against German U-boats
Their U-boats destroyed the Lusitania, which triggered the US to join
IMPORTANT CANADIAN!: PM Wilfrid Laurier introduced the Naval Service Act, authorized the building of Canadian warships. Canada's merchant marine played a significant role in the war by doing the dangerous work of ferrying munitions and food to Britain
-Dirigibles (inflatable airships)
Canadian government encouraged Canadians to buy bonds. Lent money to the gov't for the war effort. Bonds would be cashed in for a profit.
Limiting purchases during the war.
In 1917, Canadian gov't introduced income tax.