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Test #1

Professor Lewis studies the history of psychology. She would most likely agree with which of the following statements about psychology's early history?

...

Interactive dualism is the idea that:

The mind and body were separate entities that interact to produce sensations emotions and other conscious experiences

Psychology is formally defined as:

The scientific study of behavior and mental process

Which of the following people played a key role in establishing psychology as a scientific discipline in the United States?

William James

It took more than ten years to write and was 1,400 pages long when it was published. Who wrote the landmark textbook, Principles of Psychology?

William James

The founder of psychoanalysis was:

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalysis emphasized:

The role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior

Your therapist is very interested in your dreams, blocked memories, and slips of the tongue. On which approach to psychology is your therapist probably basing his psychotherapy?

psychoanalytic theory

The early school of psychology called behaviorism:

The study of observable behaviors especially as they pertain to the process of learning.

Behaviorism was characterized by:

observable behaviors that could be objectively measured and verified.

The founder of behaviorism was:

John Watson

Which of the following statements about behaviorism is TRUE?

...

Two key figures in the development of humanistic psychology include:

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

Which of the following people developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth?

Maslow

Humanistic psychology emphasized:

each individuals unique potential for psychological growth and self direction

The _____ perspective emphasizes studying the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous system and genetics.

Biological

Dr. Barongon is a psychotherapist who helps people develop choices and self-direction in striving to reach their fullest potential. Dr. Barongon probably subscribes to the _____ perspective of psychology.

humanistic

The cognitive perspective of psychology focuses on:

How mental processes influence behavior

In contrast to collectivistic cultures, individualistic cultures tend to:

focus on the needs and goals of individual

In collectivistic cultures, a person's sense of identity:

is interdependent with others

Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to:

judge other cultures by the standards of our own culture.

Which statement best characterizes the evolutionary perspective of psychology?

...

Psychologists who take the evolutionary perspective:

darwin

Cognitive psychology focuses on the study of:

mental process including reasoning and thinking problem solving memory perception, mental imagery and language

What field of psychology focuses on designing programs that promote the intellectual, social, and emotional development of children?

...educational psychology

Mrs. Brunberg works with children who have special needs, helping them to develop their intellectual and social skills. Mrs. Brunberg is most likely a _____ psychologist.

...

When Susan learned that infants in Mayan families in Guatemala often sleep in their mother's bed until the child is two or three years old, she expressed her surprise that the Mayan culture was so "backward" compared with American culture. Susan's views are a good example of _____ in action.

...ethnocentrism

Jake is a psychology graduate student who has decided to make the study of basic topics in psychology, such as learning, memory, and sensation, his major field. Jake has likely selected which of the following as his area of specialization?

...

Dr. Kerrick has developed a training program for young children that will help the children learn to read at a quicker pace and with greater comprehension. What kind of psychologist is Dr. Kerrick?

...cognitive

Joanna has suffered a series of personal setbacks, including the death of a family member, academic problems in college, and a divorce. She feels so sad, upset, and lonely that she is contemplating suicide. Joanna could probably best be helped by a(n) _____ psychologist.

...clinical

Which of the following is a statement about clinical psychologists?

...

Which of the following is a key reason why some states have enacted legislation allowing psychologists to prescribe medications for psychological symptoms?

...

Empirical evidence refers to evidence that is the result of:

...verifiable evidence based on objective observation, measurement and experimentation

steps in the scientific method?

formulate a hypotheses, design the study, analyze data and report..

A hypothesis is:

... a tentative statement about the correlation between 2 or more variables

An operational definition is:

...a precise description of how the variables in the study will be manipulated or measured

Which of the following would be an acceptable operational definition for anxiety?

...stating who how and what are being measured

In general, critical thinking refers to the practice of:

...minimizing preconceptions and examining the evidence to consider alternative explanations

Descriptive research methods:

...observing behavior to describe the relationship between the variables

The basic goal of the experimental method is to:

...demonstrate the cause and effect relationship between a change in one variable and its effect on the other

Which type of research method is used to show that one variable causes change in another variable?

...experimental method

Psychologists use statistics to:

...formulate a theory

Meta-analysis is:

...statistical method of combining and analyzing numerous studies on the same specific topic to identify trends

A meta-analysis is most useful when:

...developing a theory

A theory:

...a tentative explanation to account for diverse findings on the same topic

When psychologists systematically observe and record behaviors as they occur in their natural settings, they are using a descriptive method called:

...naturalistic observation

A pseudoscience is a:

...fake or false science making claims with little or no scientific evidence

A case study is a(n):

...an intense study on a specific individual, family or social unit

Which of the following is an important advantage of surveys?

...information can be gathered from a much larger group

One potential problem with surveys and questionnaires is that:

..people may not report accurate information

A perfect positive correlation:

...correlation of +1 change

In an experiment, the dependent variable is:

...the outcome or the effected variable

The experimental group is the group of:

...group of participants who are exposed to all the experimental conditions including the independent variable

The purpose of the control group in an experiment is to:

...get an accurate difference between the placebo effect and the actual change from the independent variable

A placebo is:

...fake substance or treatment that has no know effect4

In a double-blind study:

...neither the researcher or the participant know who is being administered the independent variable or placebo

The purpose of using a double-blind research design is to:

...keep the researcher from showing demand characteristics
or influence

Psychology research using animals as research subjects:

... comparative psychology

Deception in psychology experiments:

...is ok as long as no other alternatives can be used and no one is harmed

In psychology, the term personality refers to:

...a persons unique and relative consistent patterns of thinking feeling and behaving

Dr. Livingston maintains that unconscious mental processes and early childhood experiences are critical in the formation of personality. Dr. Livingston's beliefs reflect the _____ perspective of personality.

...psycoanalitic

Carter believes that people are basically good and that each person will naturally strive to fulfill his or her unique potential. Carter's beliefs reflect the _____ perspective of personality.

...humanistic

Early in his medical career, Freud investigated the anesthetic properties of _____.

...cocaine

Freud's famous technique of free association involved:

...spontaneously reporting thoughts feelings and mental images as they come to mind

Which of the following are the three levels of awareness in Freud's theory?

...ego superego and id

According to Freud, what was "the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activity" of the mind?

...

What is a "Freudian slip"?

...slip of the tongue unintentional remarks

Which definition reflects Freud's view of the ego?

...a way to get what you want with out breaking the rules

Freud used the term _____ to refer to sexual energy or motivation.

...labido

According to Freud, the basic goals of the id are to:

...seek imediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives

When 7-year-old Philip was caught pocketing a candy bar that he had not paid for, he felt ashamed and guilty. Using Freud's terminology, the sense of shame and guilt that Philip felt was a product of his _____.

...super ego

Ego defense mechanisms:

...repression displacement sublimation rationalization, projection, reaction formation, denial, undoing, regression

After Jack's loan application for the new car was rejected, he told a friend that he was glad he had not gotten the loan because his old car was still very reliable and he really didn't want to make monthly car payments. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Jack's behavior?

...rationalization

Although Karen's divorce was finalized several months ago, she still refers to Jonathan as her "husband" rather than her "ex-husband" when talking with friends. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Karen's behavior?

...repression

A religious leader in a small city led a crusade against the local X-rated movie theaters, topless dance bars, and strip clubs, often leading groups of angry citizens to storm the buildings and threaten to shut them down. After a great deal of publicity, however, the newspaper published photos of the same man frequenting strip clubs and patronizing prostitutes in a neighboring state. Sigmund Freud would explain this man's behavior as an example of:

...reaction formation

Which of the following statements about ego defense mechanisms is true?

...used to temorarily reduce anxiety by distorting thoughts and perceptions until an acceptable realistic solution can be made

According to Freud's theory, the Oedipus complex:

...a child has unconscious sexual desire for the opposite sex parent and is accompanied by hostile or competitive feeling toward same sex parent

According to Freud, the successful resolution of the phallic stage of psychosexual development involves the child's use of the defense mechanism of _____.

...reaction formation

According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious:

...the part of the mind that inherits traits for previous generations that contain universally shared ancestral experiences

Jung was the first to describe the basic characteristics of which of the following personality types?

... introverts and extroverts

According to psychoanalyst Karen Horney, males often envy the capacity of women to bear children, which she termed _____.

...womb envy

According to Alfred Adler, feelings of _____ are universal during infancy and childhood.

...inferiority

According to Alfred Adler, feelings of inferiority:

...are universal during in infancy and childhood as a sense of helplessness and dependancy

Freud's personality theory was primarily based on case studies of:

...middle and upper class educated patients

Humanistic psychology is a view of personality that emphasizes:

...people are inherently good, human potential, self actualization and self concept

Humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers contended that the most basic human motive is:

...actualizing tendency inate drive to maintain and enhance human life

Humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow contended that:

...

According to Carl Rogers, when a child senses that he is loved and valued only when he behaves in a way that is acceptable to his parents, the parents are displaying _____ toward the child.

...conditional positive regard

The _____ perspective on personality emphasizes conscious thought processes, self-regulation, and the importance of situational influences.

...social cognitive

According to Bandura's theory, which of the following factors is likely to contribute to the self-regulation of behavior?

... environment cognitive condition and behavior

According to reciprocal determinism:

... environment, cognitive and behavioral conditions effect each other

Which of the following represents a key STRENGTH of the social cognitive perspective?

...it is grounded in empirical laboratory research

A trait is formally defined as:

...a stable enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way

Trait theorists tend to believe that:

...a persons personality is a unique combination of traits

John has been classified as high in introversion. Eysenck would predict that:

...they are quiet solitary and reserved they would avoid new experiences

The most widely accepted trait theory today is called:

...five factor model of personality

The "Big Five" are:

...etraversion neuroticism agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience

The main strength of projective tests is that:

...they provide a wealth of qualitative information about an individuals psychological information that can be explored further in psychology

Regarding projective tests, which of the following statements is true?

...they do not have consistent results can be influenced by the administer and they do not accurately predict future behavior

"Possible selves" refers to:

...vivid images that one has about a futuristic self

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