Chapter 21 The Industrial Revolution

30 terms by MrsMaguire

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Chapter 21 sections 1 through 4

Robert Bakewell

pioneered selective breeding of livestock. Resulted in increased availablility of meat, wool, leather, soap, and candle tallow

enclosure

in England in the 1700s, the process of taking over and fencing off public lands

Jethro Tull

Invented the seed drill

James Watt

a Scottish mechanic, developed the first cost-effective steam engine that changed the textile and coal mining

Charles Townshend

encouraged farmers to grow turnips which restored exhausted soil

Richard Arkwright

English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.

Robert Fulton

This man invented the first commercially successful steamboat in the United States.

Abraham Darby

Used coal to smelt iron from its ore.

turnpikes

Privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them

factory

place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods

textiles

British industry that took hold in the earliest stages of the Industrial Revolution

steam locomotive

this invention made the growth of ralroads possible

coal

cheapest fuel used to produce iron

urbanization

a movement of people to cities

Luddites

Rioters who fought against the machines that cost them jobs

John Wesley

Founded the Methodist Church

Methodism

A new religious movement of the mid 1700's

communism

Form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole

proletariat

the industrial working class

socialism

economic system designed to end poverty and inequaity

utilitarianism

idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people

Adam Smith

Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics

Thomas Malthus

Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.

David Ricardo

"iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation

capitaism

according to Marx this led to division of society and created poverty

utopians

People that strived to have an ideal society, where there was a self-sufficient community in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common. There would be no difference between rich and poor.

Michael Faraday

invented the first electric generator

John Stuart Mill

Argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain

Jeremy Bentham

Creator of Utilitarianism. Advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."

Robert Owen

a British cotton manufacturer and utopian socialist; believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set