Chapter 15

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Test 4

Psychoanalysis

Bringing repressed feelings into conscious awareness healing

Aim of Psychoanalysis

Release of energy allocated to id-ego-superego conflicts

Methods of psychoanalysis

Free association, Dream anlaysis

Free Association

Saying aloud whatever comes to mind; pauses reveal points of resistance

Dream analysis

Finding unconscious conflicts by interpreting the censored meaning ("latent content") of dreams

Criticisms of psychoanalysis

Interpretations are highly subjective, tremendously time-consuming

Psychodynamic therapy

deriving from psychoanalytic tradition that view individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight

Humanistic Therapies

Emphasis on the importance of self-awareness and self-acceptance, Exploration of CURRENT feelings ( opposite of Freudian exhibit)

Rationale of the preventive mental health viewpoint

o Based on the idea that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing oppressive, esteem-destroying environments into more benevolent, nurturing environments that foster individual growth and self-confidence

Antidepressant Drugs

Boost the availability of neurotransmitters that elevate arousal and mood, commonly used to treat anxiety disorders

Antianxiety Drugs

Reduce Central Nervous System activity, often combined with psychotherapy (CBT)

Psychopharmacology

The study of drug effects on mind and behavior

Three Benefits attributed to all psychotherapies

Hope for demoralized people (Escape from learned helplessness), New perspective (New way of seeing oneself & responding to the world), A healthy relationship (Empathy, trust, caring)

Effective for Eating disorders

Family Therapy, CBT

Effective for Anxiety disorders

CBT, Exposure

Effective for Major depression

CBT, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, SSRIs

Meta-analysis

A method for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

Effectiveness of psychotherapies

80% of untreated people have poorer outcomes than the average treated person

Clients and clinitans tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy because

"Regression toward the mean" makes therapy appear remarkably effective

Family Therapy

Exposures cultivating both differentiation and connectivity, values the forming of "interpersonal bridges"

Group Therapy

Cheaper than individual therapy, Offers benefits of a social context ( others face similar problems)

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

Explores problematic patterns of BOTH thinking and behaving ( purge irrational negative thinking & behave in "mood-incongruent" ways

Cognitive Therapy

Maladaptive thoughts --> maladaptive behaviors; depressogenic thinking

Focus Treatment for Cognitive Therapy

Getting people to think in fresh, more constructive ways; eliminating "catastrophizing beliefs about oneself

Behavior Therapy

Maladaptive behavior --> maladaptive thoughts; maladaptive behavior must be directly confronted

Systematic Desensitization

Carefully controlled, gradual exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli

Aversive conditioning

Creating an aversive response where the absence of one is causing problems

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