Module 2, Attention, Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory, Learning & Remembering

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Interference Theory 82

Forgetting caused by information getting mixed up by other information

Eidetic Imagery (Memory)

True "photographic" memory; phenomenon where a person can recite a poem they read only ones or re-create an image in minute detail

Proactive Interference (PI) 1

Old material in LTM interferes with remembering new information; example you always part of the same spot, but today you relate so you parked elsewhere. When going home you appear normal spot before you remember the different spot. Episodic memory type of explicit memory; personal memories of events that run like an episode of TV or movie, can include: declarative-memories you can put into words, flashbulb memories-memories were you remember all the details like a picture

Schema

Schemata; variation of elaborative rehearsal; a framework or mental representation of an event, object, situation, person, process, or relationship stored in memory that leads one to expect something; like a stereotype but not, a framework; example a person wearing scrubs in a stethoscope is a ___? schema causes the answer to be a Dr

Elaborative Rehearsal 83

Linking new information with old information; giving meaning to information from STM to transfer it to LTM

Memory 2

The ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagine, or learned; first explored by Hermann Ebbinghaus

Right, Left 3

Spatial working memory tasks typically rely on the ____________ brain hemisphere and verbal working memory tasks typically rely on the ____________ brain hemisphere

Selective Attention 84

The shadowing task is most often used to study __________ ______________

Extinction

The tendency for a hemineglect patient to ignore the contralateral field when a competing stimulus is presented in the ipsilateral field is called

False 4

T or F. Brown and Peterson/Peterson each interpreted their initial data as evidence of interference as the loss mechanism in STM

Mnemonics 5

Memory technique used to increase memory skills

Rote Rehearsal

Maintenance rehearsal; method is to expand the length of time information can be held in STM; repeating information over and over (silently or allowed); can be effective for short time and is often effective through automaticity, which is long, hard practice [alpha that it, multiplication tables, music scales]

Tip-Of-The-Tongue Phenomenon (TOT)

In knowing a word, but not able to recall the word; occurs more often with stress or age

LTM 6

Portion of memory that is more or less permanent; everything we know; capacity-Unlimited in time or amount; encoded-needs meaning or framework to transfer from STM to LTM; three types: episodic, semantic, procedural

Sensory Receptors 87

Entry points for raw data that has potential to become a memory; length of stay is only a couple of seconds; unlimited capacity; experiment-George Sterling (1960) shows that echoes (auditory) lasts longer than icons (visual) masking

Explicit Memory 7

LT memories where a person is aware of what they now and can easily describe these memories; are intentionally retrieved; includes semantic in episodic memories

Combination of the Two

Is forgetting is more likely caused by interference or by a combination of the two (decay+interference)

Retroactive Interference (RI) 8

New material interferes with remembering old information already in LTM; everyday occurrence; example learning list of word pairs. A second list uses one of the same words, you want to use the first pair, not the new second pair

Visuospatial Sketchpad 9

First component of working memory. Holds and manipulates visual images and spatial info. Holds info in an analog spatial form while it's being used

Retrieval Cue 88

A stimulus which assists the process of locating and retrieving info stored in memory

Information Processing (IP) 10

Model to explain the way humans create memories; in code, store, and retrieve information like a computer

Atkinson-Schifrin Model 11

Describes human memory as consisting of three distinguishable kinds of memory, each of which representing a stage through which information passes in a sequential way

Method of Loci 89

A mnemonic device which uses a well-learned sequence of locations as a series of cues for the info to be remembered

Recall 12

A measure of LTM which involves the recollection of info w/ few, if any, cues, aids, or hints available which may facilitate retrieval

Central Executive 13

Integrates info from the verbal and visual storage systems, as well as info retrieved from LTM

Retrograde Amnesia

Typically caused by head injury; forgetting what happened shortly before the accident (theory-memories aren't anchored in to LTM)

Semantic Network Theory 14

A theory that describes the organization of info into LTM in terms of overlapping networks/grids of concepts that are interconnected and interrelated by meaningful links

Explicit Memory 15

LT memories where a person is aware of what they now and can easily describe these memories; are intentionally retrieved; includes semantic in episodic memories

Sensory Receptors 90

Entry points for raw data that has potential to become a memory; length of stay is only a couple of seconds; unlimited capacity; experiment-George Sterling (1960) shows that echoes (auditory) lasts longer than icons (visual) masking

Cued Recall

Providing a cue to assist the retrieval of info

Attention 16

The filtering process one uses for all the data in the sensory registers to determine what is transferred to STM; Cocktail Party Phenomenon-Broadbent-when in a noisy environment, a person pays attention to the conversation they are in, not to others; "On/Off"-Triesman-people turn down the other signals, but not off, so an important signal can leak through

Mnemonics 17

Memory technique used to increase memory skills

Decay Theory 18

Evidence from distracter studies; forgetting is caused by the passage of time; memories deteriorate

Chunking 19

Method of organizing information into easy that meaningful units of information; example-if short-term memory is best for max of 10 items that you must remember 12 numbers group them (junk) into three meaningful groups: 1066 1945 1812 now you have three numbers remember not 12

Declarative Memory (LT) 20

Memory of specific facts and events which can be brought on consciously, it has two sub systems

Procedural Memory 86

Memory that involves skill, example: riding a bike

Mnemonic Devices 21

A technique for enhancing memory from LTM

Explicit Memory 22

LT memories where a person is aware of what they now and can easily describe these memories; are intentionally retrieved; includes semantic in episodic memories

Implicit Memory 23

LT memories where a person is not aware of having nor can they easily describe the memory; not intentionally retrieved; includes procedural and emotional memories

LTM 24

Portion of memory that is more or less permanent; everything we know; capacity-Unlimited in time or amount; encoded-needs meaning or framework to transfer from STM to LTM; three types: episodic, semantic, procedural

Semantic Memory 25

Type of explicit memory; memory that includes facts and concepts: like Encyclopedia; school knowledge

Interference Theory 26

Forgetting caused by information getting mixed up by other information

Retrograde Amnesia

Typically caused by head injury; forgetting what happened shortly before the accident (theory-memories aren't anchored in to LTM)

Encoding, Storage, Retrieval, Sensory, STM, LTM

Name the steps/mechanisms for making a memory

Encoding 91

Step 1 for memory making

Storage 87

Step 2 for memory making

Retrieval 28

Step 3 for memory making

Sensory 27

Step 4 for memory making

STM 29

Step 5 for memory making

LTM 30

Step 6 for memory making

Implicit Memory 31

Characterized by a lack of conscious awareness in the act of recollection

STM 32

The memory system that codes info according to sound and holds about 7 (from 5-9) items for less than 30 seconds w/o rehearsal; also called working memory

Sensory Memory 33

The memory system that holds info from the senses for a period of time ranging from only a fraction of a second to about 2 seconds

Episodic, Semantic

Remembering the first time you ever saw a kitten would be a(n) ___________ memory; remembering that a kitten is an animal would be a(n) __________ memory

Recall 34

A memory task in which a person must produce required info by searching memory

Retroactive Interference (RI) 35

Learn A-B; Learn A-C; Test A-B

Left, Right 36

Hemineglect often produces disruptions in processing info in the ________ visual field, and is typically caused by _________ hemisphere brain damage

Attention 37

The filtering process one uses for all the data in the sensory registers to determine what is transferred to STM; Cocktail Party Phenomenon-Broadbent-when in a noisy environment, a person pays attention to the conversation they are in, not to others; "On/Off"-Triesman-people turn down the other signals, but not off, so an important signal can leak through

Central Executive 38

Which component of working memory handles reasoning and language comprehension?

STM 39

Called primary memory by William James; stores information taken from sensory registers and works on that information; capacity is 1.5 to 2 seconds, 7-10 items; encoding is completed by maintenance (rote) personal, can be phonetic (verbal) or iconic (visual); can only work on one task at a time sufficiently grasped both tasks are completed inadequately

STM, Weakens

The recency effect is explained by appeal to _________, as inserting a distracter task between study and test _________ this effect

Elaborative Rehearsal

Linking new information with old information; giving meaning to information from STM to transfer it to LTM

Rehearsal Buffer

A mental recycling system for holding information temporarily; Where short term memory is held and then disappears

Working Memory 40

A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

Articulatory/Phonological Loop 92

The speech and sound related components responsible for rehearsal of verbal information and phonological processing

Acoustic-Articulatory Code 41

A verbally based code (code refers to the way verbal info is stored in short-term memory)

Mnemonic Device 42

A memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something

Visuospatial Sketchpad 43

Processes & temporarily stores visual and spatial information, such as the location and natuer of objects in the environment

Serial Exhaustive Search

(Sternberg) The memory set is scanned one item at a time (serial), and the entire set is scanned on every trail, whether or not a match is found (exhaustive)

Process Model

Describes relationships among processes. Sternberg (1969) proposed a simple flowchart of the four separate mental processes that occurred during the timed portion of very trail

Recency Effect

The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence

Chunking 44

Grouping individual bits of data into meaningful larger units

Serial Position Curve

U-shape pattern indicating the tendency to recall more items from the beginning and end of a list than from the middle

Decay, Interference

Brown and Peterson thought the loss mechanism in STM was _________; whereas later researches argued it was ________________

Proactive Interference (PI) 45

Finding your car in the parking lot today might be difficult if you start walking to where you parked it yesterday. This exemplifies

Working Memory 46

A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retreived from long-term memory

Recoding 47

Re-organizing or modifying information to assist storage in memory

Central Executive 48

In Alan Baddely's model of working memory, the component that integrates information from the phonological loop and the visuospatial working memory, as well as material retrieved from long-term memory. This also plays a major role in planning and controlling behavior

Acoustic-Articulatory Code

A verbally based code (code refers to the way verbal info is stored in short-term memory)

Sternberg Task 49

Participants first stored a short list of letters, called the memory set, in short-term memory. They then saw a single letter, the probe, and responded yes/no depending on whether the probe item was among the letters in the memory set

Proactive Interference (PI) 50

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the retrieval of new information

Rehearsal Buffer

A mental recycling system for holding information temporarily, Where short term memory is held and then disappear

Decay 51

The weakening and fading of memories with the passage of time. Idea which is widely discredited

Working Memory 52

A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory adn visual-spatial information, and of information retreived from long-term memory

Retroactive Interference (RI) 53

Now information that interferes with remembering old information; backwards-acting interference

Proactive Interference (PI) 54

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the retrieval of new information

Brown-Peterson Task 93

A simple three-letter stimulus was presented to the subject, followed by a three-digit number. Subjects were instructed firt to attend to the stimulus, then to begin counting backward by threes from the number they were shown. This counting was a distracter task designed to prevent rehearsal and prove that forgetting caused by decay

Free Recall 55

Subjects recall the list of items in any order they wish. we often find that people recall items based on their semantic content rather than the item's order in the list. Items at the beginning and end of the list are often recalled with more accuracy than items in the middle of the list

LTM 56

Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

Hippocampus 57

Neural center that is located in limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage

STM 58

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing

Working Memory 59

Newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of income auditory and visual-spatial information

Mood-Congruent Memory

Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

Automatic Processing 60

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency

Semantic Encoding

Encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

Encoding 61

Processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning

Retrieval 62

Process of getting information out of memory storage

Chunking 63

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

Serial Position Effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

Recall 64

Measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier

Misinformation Effect

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

Explicit Memory 65

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

Rehearsal 66

Conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

Retroactive Interference (RI) 67

Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

Echoic Memory 68

Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

Spacing Effect

Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

Priming

Activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

Memory 69

Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Source Amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

Encoding 70

The process of converting info into a useable form or code that can be stored by the brain and represented in memory

Sternberg Task 71

Memory Set: 6 1 4 9 8. Is the Probe digit, 7, a member of the memory set?

Storage, Storage & Processing

When measuring memory capacity, STM span tasks emphasize _________ and Engle's tasks emphasize __________

True 72

T or F. In Baddeley's model of working memory, the central executive plans future actions and initiates retrieval and decision processes

Maintenance Rehearsal 73

The mental repetition of info over and over again to retain it in STM

Mnemonic Devices 74

A technique for enhancing memory from LTM

Storage 75

Retention of encoded information over time

Visual Encoding

Encoding of picture images

Sensory Memory 76

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

Implicit Memory 77

Retention independent of conscious recollection

Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

Recognition 78

Measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned

Proactive Interference (PI) 79

Calling your new girlfriend by the name of your old girlfriend

Serial Exhaustive/38

According to Sternberg, memory is scanned in a _________ fashion, at the approximate rate of __________ MS per item

Iconic Memory 80

Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli

Effortful Processing

Encoding that requires attention conscious effort

Acoustic Encoding 96

Encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

Relearning 81

Memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

Flashbulb Memory 94

Clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

Serial Position Effect 95

Free recall of items in a list is best for beginning and end & worst for items in the middle of the list

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