Two letters that represent one sound. There are consonant digraphs and vowel digraphs.sh, ch, th, wh, ew, aw, oo
a special vowel sound in which one of the vowels slides into the other within the same syllable creating a new vowel sound.
oi, oy, ou, ow
two or three letter sequences that are blended together- can still hear the individual phonemes
Examples:br, cr, fr, dr, bl, cl, pl, sl, str, sw, st, sk, ct, ld
the written representation of a phoneme (sound)
Example: the /f/ phoneme can be represented by the graphemes: ph, f, gh
a syllable that ends in a vowel sound, typically long
Examples: ma/jor, few, cow, ze/bra
The consonant g has two sounds. The hard g sounds like gum. Typically found at the end of words and also before a, o, u.
Examples: game, gap, goat, bug
the consonant g has two sounds. The soft g is like /j/. It is typically found followed by the letters e, i, y
Examples: gypsy, gem, giraffe
The consonant c has two sounds. The hard c sounds like cake. It is typically found at the beginning of words and before a, o, u.
Examples: can, cut, cob
the consonant c has two sounds. The soft c sounds like /s/ in civil It is typically found before the letters e and i.
Examples: cent, ceiling, center
The r changes the way the vowel before it is pronounced
Examples: bar, fir, her, lure
By syllable, the part of the syllable that is the initial consonant sound
Examples: sun/ onset = s
Slide/ onset = sl
By syllable, the part of the syllable that is composed of the vowel sound and any remaining consonant sounds within that syllable.Examples: tag/ rime= ag
Hat/ rime = at
manipulating phonemes- putting together the individual phonemes to blend and form a word or syllable
Examples: /b/ /i /g/ = big
manipulating phonemes- separating the individual phonemes from within a word or syllable
Examples: part = /p/ /ar/ /t/
the study of the relationship between letters and sounds, just one part of a reading program
a speech sound produced by the passage of air through a relatively open vocal tract
Examples: a, e, i, o, u (sometimes y and w)
a speech sound that constricts the air as it is stopped and released through the vocal tract, teeth mouth, and lips