List the 2 types of enzyme inhibitors and how each one works.
-Competitive inhibitor: binds to the active site of an enzyme
-Non-competitive inhibitor: binds to another part of an enzyme
What is metabolism?
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions
How do enzymes speed up reactions?
Enzymes lower the activation energy (EΑ) without affecting ∆G
The site where an enzyme binds to the substrate is known as the ________.
What is a spontaneous reaction?
A spontaneous reaction happens without energy input, and increases the entropy of the universe
What are the three kinds of cellular work?
________ energy is associated with motion and heat, while _________ energy is associated with location and chemical energy.
-Kinetic energy is associated with motion and heat
-Potential energy is associated with location and chemical energy
Differentiate between catabolic and anabolic reactions.
-Catabolic: release energy, break down, spontaneous, ∆G:neg, exergonic
-Anabolic: consume energy, build up, non-spontaneous, ∆G:pos, endergonic
What is a nonprotein enzyme helper called? Hint: they are usually small metallic ions.
Cofactors are nonprotein enzyme helpers
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy is constant; it cannot be created or destroyed
The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one is called __________.
What is activation energy?
Activation energy is the initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction
What binds to the active site?
A substrate binds to the active site of an enzyme forming an enzyme-substrate complex
Free energy is also abbreviated as ________.
∆G (delta G)
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
Every energy transfer increases the entropy of the universe
What are the two factors that can influence optimal enzyme activity?
-Environmental factors (temperature, pH)
-Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme
What is it called when a regulatory molecule binds to a protein at one site and effects the protein's function at another site?