Suggested the Law of Effect, which was the precursor of operant conditioning. Is also credited with the first educational psychology textbook in 1903.
Law of Effect
Individuals do what rewards them and stop doing what doesn't bring some reward.
Developed the Theory of Association, which was a forerunner of behaviorism.
Theory of Association
Grouping things together based on the fact that they occur together in time and space. This idea is basically what Ivan Pavlov later proved experimentally.
Discovered the concept now called classical conditioning.
Involves teaching an organism to respond to a neutral stimulus by pairing the neutral stimulus with a not-so-neutral stimulus. After consistent pairings of the NS and the UCS, the NS becomes the CS and elicits a response.
Expanded the ideas of Pavlov and founded the school of behaviorism. His idea of learning was that everything could be explained by stimulus-response chains and that conditioning was the key factor in developing these chains.
Conducted the first scientific experiments to prove the concepts in Throndike's law of effect and in Watson's idea of the causes of effects of behavior. This idea of behavior being influenced primarily by reinforcement is now called Operant Conditioning.
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
A stimulus that does not produce a specific response on its own.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
The not-so-neutral stimulus. This elicits a natural response.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The NS once it has been paired with the UCS. Has no naturally occurring response.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
The naturally occurring response to the US.
The UCS and the CS are presented at the same time.
Higher-Order Conditioning/Second-Order Conditioning
A conditioning technique in which a previous CS acts as an UCS.
Pairing the CS and the UCS in which the CS is presented before the UCS.
The presentation of the CS begins before that of the UCS and lasts until the UCS is presented.
The CS is presented and terminated before the UCS is presented.
The CS is presented after the UCS. Has been proven to be ineffective and accomplishes only inhibitory conditioning.
Aims to influence a response through various reinforcement strategies.
Behavior is rewarded for closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior. Also called differential reinforcement of successive approximations.
A natural reinforcement, such as food and water.
A learned reinforcer, such as money.
A type of reward acting as a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behavior.
The taking away of an adverse stimulus to increase the likelihood of behavior.
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
Every correct response is met with some form of reinforcement.
Partial Reinforcement Schedule
Not all correct responses are met with reinforcement.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
A reinforcement is delivered after a consistent number of responses. For example, after every 6 responses there is a reward.
Variable Ratio Schedule
In this, learning takes the most time to occur, but it is least likely to become extinguished. The reward is delivered after different numbers of correct responses, and cannot be predicted.
Fixed Interval Schedule
Rewards come after a passage of a certain time period. For example, every 5 minutes. Does little to motivate the behavior.
Variable Interval Schedule
Rewards are delivered after differing time periods. This is the second most effective strategy for maintaining behavior.
Primary or Instinctual Drives
Individuals are motivated by these, such as hunger or thirst.
Secondary or Acquired Drives
Are motivators such as money or other learned reinforcers.
Individuals seek out stimulation, novel experience, or self-destruction.
(people) Clark Hull
Proposed that Performance=Drive X Habit. Individuals are first motivated by drive, and then they act accordingly to old successful habits. They will do what has worked in the past to satisfy the drive.
Proposed that Performance= Expectation X Value. Also known as the expectancy theory. People are motivated by goals that they think they might actually meet. Also came up with the concept of Cognitive Maps.
(people) Murray and McClelland
People are motivated by a Need for Achievement (nAch).
Suggested a theory of motivation where people set realistic goals with intermediate risk sets feel pride with accomplishment and want to succeed more than they fear failure.
Proposed the approach-avoidance conflict. This conflict refers to the state one feels when a certain goal has both pros and cons. Typically, the further one is from the goal, the more one focuses on the pros and the closer one is to the goal, the more one focuses on the cons.
The theory that individuals are motivated solely by what brings the most pleasure and the least pain.
The Premack Principle
The idea that people are motivated to do what they do not want to do by rewarding themselves afterward with something they like to do.
A proper level is required in order to learn or perform.
Postulated that a medium amount of arousal is best for performance. Too little arousal or too much arousal can hamper performance of tasks.
Refers to the ability to discriminate between different but similar stimuli.
To make the same response to a group of similar stimuli.
Refers to the form of learning in which one links together chains of stimuli and responses.
Perceptual or Concept Learning
Refers to learning about something in general, like history.
Uses punishment to decrease the likelihood of a behavior.
Teaches an animal to stay away from something the animal does not want.
Teaches an animal to perform a desired behavior to get away from a negative stimulus.
Promotes the extinction of an undesired behavior. Acts as a negative stimulus.
Affects physiological responses through training.
State Dependent Learning
Referes to the concept that what a person learns in one state is best recalled in that state.
is the reversal of conditioning. The goal is to encourage the organism to stop doing a certain behavior.
The reappearance of an extinguished response, even in the absence of further conditioning and training.
Takes place without reinforcement. For example, watching someone play chess and then learning new tricks.
Unrelated items are grouped together. For example, pets often dislike riding in cars because it means they are going to the vet.
Occurs when someone "learns" that a specific action causes an event, when in reality the two are unrelated.
The act of linking together a series of behaviors that ultimately results in reinforcement - like learning the alphabet.
is the decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus as a result of increasing familiarity to the stimulus.
is increased sensitivity to the environment following the presentation of a strong stimulus.
A classical conditioning concept referring to an animal's inability to infer a relationship between a particular stimulus and response due to the presence of a more prominent stimulus.
Refers to experiments in which an apparatus allows an animal to control its reinforcements, such as bar pressing or key pecking.
Social Learning Theory
States that individuals learn through their culture.
Learning by watching
Learning behavior by imitating others.
Conducted the Bobo Doll experiment and induced that learning and aggressive behavior result from modeling aggressive behavior.
Concluded that animals are programmed through evolution to make certain connections, called preparedness. An example of this is conditioned nausea.
The Garcia Effect
The extremely strong connection that animals form between nausea and food.
(people) M. E. Olds
Performed experiments in which electrical stimulation of pleasure centers in the brain were used as positive reinforcement. Animals would do the behavior to receive the stimulation and was viewed as evidence against the drive-reduction theory.
Continuous Motor Tasks
Are easier to learn than discrete motor tasks. An example would be to ride a bicycle.
Discrete Motor Tasks
A task that is divided into different parts that do not facilitate the recall of each other.
Is previous learning that makes it easier to learn another task later.
Previous information that makes it difficult to learn a new task.
Prime age of learning
humans are primed to learn from age 3-20, from age 20-50 it remains constant, and after 50 the ability of learning drops.
First described the learning curve.
The Learning Curve
When learning something new, the rate of learning changes over time.
Concerned with how people learn in educational settings.
The relatively permanent or stable change in behavior as a result of experience.
Refers to a set of characteristics that are indicative of a person's ability to learn.
Involves students working together on projects together in small groups.
Occurs when a teacher encourages a student to learn independently and only provides assistance with topics or concepts that are beyond the student's capacity.