Educational Psychology - Chapter 5

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Culture

The knowledge, values, attitudes, and traditions that guide the behavior of a group of people and allow them to solve the problems of living in their environment

Socioeconomic status

Relative standing in the society based on income, power, background and prestige

Resistance culture

Group values and beliefs about refusing to adopt the behaviors and attitudes of the majority culture

Tracking

Assignment to different classes and academic experiences based on achievement

Immigrants

Popel who voluntarily leave their country to become permanent residents in a new place

Refugees

A special group of immigrants who also relocate voluntarily, but who are fleeing their home country because it is not safe

Melting Pot

A metaphor for the absorption and assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of society so that ethnic differences vanish

Cultural deficit model

A model that explains the school achievement problems of ethnic minority students by assuming that their culture is inadequate and does not prepare them to succeed in school

Ethnicity

A cultural heritage shared by a group of people

Race

A socially constructed category based on appearances and ancestry

Minority group

A group of people who have been socially disadvantaged, not always a minority in actual numbers

Prejudice

Prejudgement or irrational generalization about an entire category of people

Stereotype

Schema that organizes knowledge or perceptions about a category

Discrimination

Treating or acting unfairly toward particular categories of people

Stereotype threat

The extra emotional and cognitive burden that your performance in an academic situation might confirm a stereotype that others hold about you

Dialect

Rule-governed variation of a language spoken by a particular group

Code-switching

Successful switching between cultures in language, dialect, or nonverbal behaviors to fit the situation

Genderlects

Different way of talking for males and females

Bilingualism

Speaking two languages fluently

Semilingual

Not proficient in any language, speaking one or more languages inadequately

English Language Learners

(ELL) Students whose primary or heritage language is not English

English as a Second Language

(ESL) Designation for programs and classes to teach English to students who are not native speakers of English

Gender biases

Different views of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other

Multicultural education

Education that promotes equity in the schooling of all students

Culturally relevant pedagogy

Excellent teaching for students of color that includes academic success, developing and maintaining cultural competence, and developing a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo

Resilience

The ability to adapt successfully in spite of difficult circumstances and threats to development

Sociolinguistics

The study of the formal and informal rules for how, when, about what, to whom and how long to speak in conversations within cultural groups

Pragmatics

The rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture

Participation structures

The formal and informal rules for how to take part in a given activity

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