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William Ellison

earned his freedom in south carolina by working for wages as a cotton gin maker

Nat Turner

Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders and familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states stricker control on slave population.

Denmark Vesey

United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822)

Gabriel Prosser

unsuccessful slave leader of revolt in Richmond, VA during 1800

Harriet Tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

Eli Whitney

United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)

Cotton Gin

machine that produced a more efficient way to get the seeds out of cotton, and expanded southern development

Sold Down The River

phrase used to describe a slave that was sold away from their plantation and family

whipping

most common form of slave punishment

cash crop

farm crop grown to be sold or traded rather than used by the farm family

Irish

largest group of immigrants

German

2nd largest group of immigrants

Potato Famine

This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year. Caused many to immigrate to the United States

Nativism

a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

Middle Class

South: yeoman farmers. North: Lawyers, shopkeepers, Artisans

McCormick Reaper

allowed farmers to cut more wheat in less time

Upper Class

South: Plantation Owners. North: Merchants, Bankers, Manufacturers

Francis Cabot Lowell

Visited England and returned to the US to open a mill in Mass. that brought spining and weaving in one building in a town named after him

Lowell Girls

single women who earned $2-4 a week in textile mills for about 4 years. 1837

Strikes

times when workers refuse to work until owners improve conditions

Labor Unions

an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions

Overseers

A person who was hired to watch slaves to see that they did their work.

Drivers

slaves themselves who helped the overseers manage the plantation

Underground Railroad

a network of people who helped thousands of enslaved people escape to the North by providing transportation and hiding places

Gang Labor

working in the fields side-by-side in groups

Spirituals

religious folk songs that blended biblical themes with the realities of slavery

Elias Howe

he invented a home sewing machine

factory system

system bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency

Sarah Bagley

Lowell girl who urged her co-workers to form a union

yeoman farmers

small farmers in the South

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