Psychology chapter 14

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Social psychology, pastor chapter 14

Cognitive dissonance theory attempts to explain why
a. people who act against their attidues tend to change their attitudes
b. people who act against their attitudes tend to change their behavior
c. agreeing to a small request increases the likelihood that we will agree to a larger request
d. people talk one way and act another

Cognitive dissonance theory attempts to explain why
a. people who act against their attidues tend to change their attitudes

In Milgram's experience, the "teachers" were most likely to obey the commeands to deliver high voltage shocks to "learners" when
a. the learner was at a distance from the teacher
b. the learner was close at hand
c. the other teachers refused to go along with the experimenter
d. the person giving the order was another teacher

In Milgram's experience, the "teachers" were most likely to obey the commeands to deliver high voltage shocks to "learners" when
a. the learner was at a distance from the teacher

In like-minded groups, discussion strengthens the prevailing opinion. This effect is called
a. groupthink
b. minority influence
c. group polarization
d. social facilitation

In like-minded groups, discussion strengthens the prevailing opinion. This effect is called
c. group polarization

Evidence of a biological influence on aggression is the finding that
a. aggressive behavior varies widelfy from culture to culture
b. animal scan be bred for aggressiveness
c. the brain ha sa violence center in the frontal lobes
d. men who commit violent crimes have low levels of testosterone

Evidence of a biological influence on aggression is the finding that
b. animal scan be bred for aggressiveness

In a prisoner's dilemma game with a non-zero-sum payoff matrix, cooperation is most likely when participants are willing to:
a. take turns using the same road.
b. settle for small gains on each round of the game.
c. take time to think about their game strategy before each round of the game.
d. use a gate to block the other player's road.

In a prisoner's dilemma game with a non-zero-sum payoff matrix, cooperation is most likely when participants are willing to:
b. settle for small gains on each round of the game.

The trucking game you played in this PsychSim activity illustrates:
a. a zero-sum environment.
b. a non-zero-sum environment.
c. both a zero-sum and a non-zero-sum environment.
d. neither a zero-sum nor a non-zero-sum environment.

The trucking game you played in this PsychSim activity illustrates:
b. a non-zero-sum environment.

Player mistrust is most likely to be increased in the trucking game when:
a. the game is played in a non-zero-sum environment.
b. both players can avoid using the same road.
c. both players can set up a roadblock.
d. both players can choose to wait at the shortcut if it's already in use.

Player mistrust is most likely to be increased in the trucking game when:
c. both players can set up a roadblock.

People rely on stereotypes because:
a. they have limited memory capacity and often have incomplete or flawed information about other people.
b. they have no other way to form opinions about people who are different from themselves.
c. stereotypes are the most positive way to judge people who are different.
d. stereotypes are always right.

People rely on stereotypes because:
a. they have limited memory capacity and often have incomplete or flawed information about other people.

Solomon Asch discovered that when people look at lists of traits or hear about someone's traits, they are influenced primarily by ________ traits.
a. stereotype
b. peripheral
c. personality
d. central

Solomon Asch discovered that when people look at lists of traits or hear about someone's traits, they are influenced primarily by ________ traits.
d. central

Hamilton and Giffords' experiment showed how people are susceptible to:
a. the fundamental attribution error.
b. actor-observer bias.
c. making illusory correlations.
d. first impressions.

Hamilton and Giffords' experiment showed how people are susceptible to:
c. making illusory correlations.

People rely on stereotypes because:
a. they have limited memory capacity and often have incomplete or flawed information about other people.
b. they have no other way to form opinions about people who are different from themselves.
c. stereotypes are the most positive way to judge people who are different.
d. stereotypes are always right

People rely on stereotypes because:
a. they have limited memory capacity and often have incomplete or flawed information about other people.

Sherif's autokinetic phenomenon study demonstrated how people were likely to change their answers when the situation was ambiguous. This phenomenon is called ________ influence.
a. consensus
b. informational social
c. normative social
d. ambiguous social

Sherif's autokinetic phenomenon study demonstrated how people were likely to change their answers when the situation was ambiguous. This phenomenon is called ________ influence.
b. informational social

Asch found that ________ percent of the real participants in his conformity experiment agreed with the wrong answer on at least one of the critical trials.
a. 50
b. 26
c. 74
d. 93

Asch found that ________ percent of the real participants in his conformity experiment agreed with the wrong answer on at least one of the critical trials.
c. 74

Social psychologists have found that conformity increases when a group is:
a. unanimous.
b. undecided.
c. uninformed.
d. under pressure.

Social psychologists have found that conformity increases when a group is:
a. unanimous.

Sometimes people resist social influence by rebelling against social pressure. In psychology, this is called:
a. rebellion.
b. defiance phenomenon.
c. disobedience syndrome.
d. reactance.

Sometimes people resist social influence by rebelling against social pressure. In psychology, this is called:
d. reactance.

Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of
a. altruism.
b. visual perception.
c. learning.
d. aggression

Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of
b. visual perception.

Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country's actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates
a. deindividuation.
b. the mere exposure effect.
c. the just-world phenomenon.
d. mirror-image perceptions.

Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country's actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates
d. mirror-image perceptions.

What is social psychology?

Study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

What do social psychologists study?

Study social influences that explain why the same person will act differently in different situations.

What is the fundamental attribution error?

In situations, we overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of the situation when we judge someone and their actions.

The fundamental attribution error appears in which cultures more?

Western cultures where individuality is prized.
Also rich, political conservatives tend to do the fundamental attribution error.

How could we lessen the fundamental attribution error?

When we can take on the observers point of view.

What is an attitude?

An attitude is a feeling, often based on our beliefs, that can influence how we respond to particular objects, peopl eand events
Attitude affect actions especialy when external influences are minimal, and the attitude is stable.

what is the foot in the door phenomenon?

It is when people who agree to small requests will later on find it easier to agree to a larger one. This applis to when someone induces you to act against your beliefs once with something small, you can do it later for something larger. Soemtimes, your attitudes may even change.

What affect does role playing have on attitude?

We take on new roles in life. Sometimes it may feel phone at first, but then acting the role eventually makes you become it. sometimes you don't conform, depending on how strongly you feel.

What was the Zimbardo stanford prison study?

Zimbardo had a study that randomly assigned prisoners and guards to his subjects. He wanted to know what happened to them. After two days, he had to call off the study becaues the guards and prisoners developed role-approrpirate attitudes. It because like an actual prison. There were some who did not give into the situation and were still students.

what is the cognitive dissonance theory?

Mental discomfort - when beliefs don't match what we've done, we may change our beliefs and attitudes to fit our choices.

What is the chameleon effect?

We take on the emotional tones of those round us (automatic mimicry)

What is conformity?

Conformity is adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group.

What was Asch's experiment?

Asch's experiment tried to see how a person was affected when under group pressures. He had the experimentee in a group of three. Group of three gave the wrong person on purpose. More than 1/3 of the people in his study were willing to give the wrong anser to conform to others.

When are we more likely to conform?

When we
1) are made to feel incompetent or insecure
2) are in a group with at least three people
3) Are in a group where everyone else agrees
4) admire the grou's status and attractiveness
5) have not committed to any response
6) know that others in the group will observe our behavior
7) are from a culture that strongly encourages respect for social standards

Why do we conform?

To avoir or gain approval, to provide information that open minded people will benefit from
Conformity is good in asian, african and latin american cultures. In western european and english speaking cultures, they tend to prize individualization.

What was Milgram's obedience study?

He studied how far people would be obedient to actions that were clearly wrong. Learner vs teacher, pressing volts to see if people could be pressured to obey order sthat would shock people 150 volts. More than 60% complied fully, right up to the last switch.

What did Milgram's study show about obedience?

Obedience was highest when:
-person giving orders was close at hand and perceived to be a legit figure
-authority figure was supported by a respected, well known institution
-victim was depersonalized or at a distance
-there were no role models for defiance

-social influences can make people conform to falsehoods or give in to cruelty
-throughout history there is always a consistent and persisiten minority voice. Eventually we begin to follow that minority voice.

What is social facilitation?

Our responses on an individual task are stronger in the presence of others. Works when tasks are simple, or when we are REALLY goood at something. If we are bad, we become even more inept in front of others.

What is social loafing?

When performing tasks as a group, people tend to exert less effort toward a common goal, especially in individualistic cultures.

Why do are people social loafers?

People act as part of a group feel less accountable
Group members may not believe individual contributions make a difference
people who are not highly motivated may free ride on others efforts

What is deindividuation?

Think MOSH PIT -- when group situations that foster arousal and anonymity may lead to loss of self awareness and self restraint

What is group polarization?

Strengthening of a group's preexisting attitudes through discussions within the group

What is group think?

In a deeply cohesive group, membefrs may try to reach consensus without ritically evaluating other options

What are the problems with group think?

Group think can:
-distory important decisions
-group is too overconfident and to preserve this, group members with different opinions are quiet
-desire for harmony replaces realistic judgement

what is prejudice?

A negative attitude of prejudgement, an ujustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Three part mixture of beliefs, emotions, being likely to act on the beliefs

What is discrimination?

Discrimination is negative BEHAVIOR. The predisposition to action.

How has prejudice changed throughout time?

Subtle prejudice lingers as open prejudice wanes.

What are the social roots of prejudice?

-Social inequalities
-"just world" phonomenon
-stereotypes
-be have a need to belong and have a group identity
-we make isntant judgments about strangers
-ingroup bias - we have a tendency to favor our own group

What is the emotional roots of prejudice?

The emotional roots of prejudice are - when threatened, people cling more tightl yto their prejudices
-scapegoat theory - when things go wrong, finding someone to blame can provide outlet for anger
-prejudice levels tend to be high among economically frustrated people
-temporary frustration increases with perjudice

What are the cognitive roots of perjudice?

1 - we form categories of people into social or ethnic groups and we overestimate their similarities
2 - the other race effect - tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of others
3 - vivid case memory
4 - just world phenomenon builds stereotypes

What is aggression?

Any verbal or physical behavior intended to hurt our destroy. It is the most destructive force in our social relations. Aggression has 1) genetic influences (animals bred for aggresiveness).
2) neural influences (sitmulated and produce aggressive behavior from the frontal core).
3) has biochemical influences - testosterone influences neural control of aggression; substances like alchol unleash aggressive responses to frustration
4) psychological influences - frustration or rejection, observation/modelling

What is attraction?

Special sorts of attachments - close friendships and romantic love - help us cope with other relationships.
-Psychologically, friendships are helped first by proximity (mere exposure effect - being exposed to new stimuli makes you like that stimuli)
-Physically, attractiveness is needed.
-Similarity is also needed. Reward theory of attraction - we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs.

What is passionate love?

Aroused state of positive absorption in another, may be physical, misattributed, and temporary

What is companionate love?

A deep, affectionate attachment. usually has
1) Equity is where both partners receive in proportion to what they give.
2) self disclosure
3) romance - overvaluing romance increases divorce

What is altruism?

Altruisim is the unselfish concern for the welfare of others. If people believe they were the only ones to hear something, they would help right away. If not, they fall prey to the bystander effect. Best odds of helping someone occur when:
1) person appears to need and deserve help
2) person is a woman
3) person is in some ways similar to us
4) We hav ejust observed someone else behind helpful
5) We are not in a hurry
6) We are in a smool town
7) we are in a good mood

What is the conflict?

Perception that actions, goals or ideas are incompatible. Mirror image perceptions - mutual views often help by people in conflict.
Cooperation can be aided when you give people subordinate goals.

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:

An individual does something that is personally disagreeable.

Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor's actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of:
a. prejudice
b. groupthink
c. self serving bias
d. fundamental attribution error

Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor's actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of:
d. fundamental attribution error

Which of the following is true?
a. attitudes and actions rarely correspond
b. attitudes predict behavior about half the time
c. attitudes are excellent predictors of bheavior
d. attitudes predict behavior under certain circumstances.

Which of the following is true?
d. attitudes predict behavior under certain circumstances.

Aggression is defined as behavior that

is indended to hurt another person

What is true about agresion>

It varies too much to be instinctive.

(Use similar or dissimilar) We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as___; and the members of an outgroup as ___.

We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as dissimilar and the members of an outgroup as similar to one another.

Research indivates that in an emergency situation, the presence of others often:

precents people from even noticing the situation
prevents people from interpreting the situation as an emergency
prevents people from assuming responsibility fo rassisting

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