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_________ is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are threatening or challenging.

Stress

Which of the following are considered mental symptoms of stress?

difficulty making decisions, loss of sense of humor, difficulty concentrating

According to Holmes and Rahe, a person who scores over 300 on the Social Readjustment Scale is more likely than are people with lower scores to have what kind of experience in the near future?

a higher chance of becoming ill or having an accident

The term hassles refers to __________.

minor annoyances of everyday life

Researchers have found an association between daily hassles and _________.

colds and headaches

An urgent demand or expectations for our behavior that comes from an outside source is called ________.

pressure

The _______ control one has, the _______ the degree of stress.

less; greater

________ occurs when a person is blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need.

Frustration

The first response that people typically make to frustration is _________.

persistence

A conflict in which a person must choose between two undesirable routes to a goal or goals is called ________.

avoidance-avoidance

When faced with an approach-avoidance conflict, some people tend to go back and forth with their choice because they cannot decide for or against the goal or event. This mind-changing behavior is called _______.

vacillating

When the teacher was handing out this test, you noticed that your respiration rate and heartbeat increased, your palms got sweaty, and your hand shook a little. Your pretest behaviors were triggered by the ________. Upon completion of the exam, your body returned to its normal state by way of the ________.

sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system

During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome, ___________.

the sympathetic nervous system is activated and adrenal glands

According to Hans Selye, resistance to stress is lowest at the ________ stage.

exhaustion

People living under stressful conditions tend to get sick more often than they would otherwise. How do researchers in psychoneuroimmunology explain this phenomenon?

The stress response reduces immune system functioning, thus making us more vulnerable to disease.

Prolonged stress has been shown to ______ cancer.

increase vulnerability to

Imagine that you have just flunked a class. You evaluate this situation and decide that flunking a class us stressful and important enough to be upset about. Next you decide to repeat the class in summer school. You have made __________.

Both a primary and secondary appraisal

A person who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hardworking, easily annoyed, and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger is said to be exhibiting a ___________ personality.

Type A

The Framingham Heart Study found that the risk of coronary heart disease __________.

for women who work and are also Type A is four times that of Type B women who work

Seira is very pleasant and likes to keep the peace. She finds it difficult to express emotions and internalizes her anger. She has few friends and spends a lot of time alone. According to research, Seira ___________.

is a Type C personality

Which of the following are the three terms used to describe the way in which hardy people differ from many Type A people and others who suffer more ill effects due to stress?

commitment, control, challenge

Optimists tend to use alternative thinking to _________.

come up with explanations that do not reflect badly on them personally for why undesirable events occur

It is time for a game of Jeopardy. The category is "Social Factors that Contribute to Stress." The revealed answer is "Lack of variety or meaningfulness of work." What will you say right before the buzzer sounds?

"What is one cause of job stress?"

Research has consistently shown that having a good _______ is of critical importance in a person's ability to cope with stressors.

social support system

Which of the following activities is specifically mentioned by your authors as "counting" as a form of exercise?

joyous laughter

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