7 terminology of the special sense eye

93 terms by akratiri 

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intraocular

ocul/eye; pertaining to within the eye

eyes

the organs of vision; ea. is set w/in an orbit of the skull (eye-socket). The eyes are protected by: eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal glands & meibomian glands. The internal eye consists of 3 layers: Fibrous layer, vascular layer & nervous layer.

eyelids

a protective fold

conjunctiva

to bind together;
layer of epithelium that covers the inner surfaces of the eyelids and the anterior surface of the eye

Meibomian glands

located along the edge of the eyelids; provide moisture to the eye.

lacrimal glands

lacrim/tear;
tear glands located near the dorsolateral surface of the eye; lacrimal ducts carry the tears from the gland to wash over the anterior surface of the eye

fibrous layer

outermost layer of internal eye structure which consists of the: sclera, cornea & anterior chamber

sclera

sclera/thick, hard;
the tough, white outer covering of the eye

cornea

anterior part of the fibrous layer; a transparent covering over the iris & pupil

anterior chamber

narrow chamber behind the cornea that is filled with a watery fluid called aqueous humor, which is constantly produced and reabsorbed

aqueous humor

humor/fluid;
watery fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye

Vascular layer

middle layer of internal eye structure which consists of the: iris, pupil, lens & choroid

iris

ir/rainbow;
ring of smooth muscle that forms the colored part of the eye

pupil

core;
black opening in the center of the eye

lens

transparent disk that is suspended behind the pupil by suspensory ligaments, which attach to ciliary muscles; the ciliary muscles pull on the lens when they contract, changing the lens shape to allow light to focus on the retina; behind the lens is a large cavity; this posterior cavity is filled with a gelatinous material known as vitreous humor

vitreous humor

humor/fluid;
gelatinous mass in the posterior cavity of the eye

choroid

area rich in blood vessels that carry a blood supply to nourish the cells of the retina

Nervous layer

the innermost layer of the eye which consists of the retina, photoreceptors, fovea centralis & optic nerve.

retina

retina/net;
thin film of neurons at the back of the eye containing photoreceptors

photoreceptors

light/receptors;
receptors sensitive to light; two types: rods & cones

rods

photoreceptors that are very sensitive to small amounts of light but are limited to black and white shades

cones

photoreceptors that require more light as stimulus but enable you to perceive color

fovea centralis

fovea/small pit;
small depression in part of the retina where cones are in greatest abundance, making it the area of highest visual acuity

optic nerve

opt/eye, vision;
nerve pathway from the retina of both eyes to the brain

optic disk

opt/eye, vision;
the blind spot; the optic disk is a small region where photoreceptors are absent due to the origin of the optic nerve

Diplopia

double/vision.
w/ MS, diplopia is usually caused by lesions in the brain stem where the cranial nerves serving the eye muscles arise.

infantile nystagmus

Most common types are 1) congenital nystagmus (CN) and 2) latent/manifest latent nystagmus (LMLN).

Asthenopia

weakness/vision;
eyestrain; SS

Blepharoptosis

eyelid/falling down;
drooping of an eyelid; SS

Emmetropia

measure/vision;
normal condition of an eye; SS

Leukocoria

white/pupil/condition;
condition of white in the pupil; SS

Ophthalmalgia

eye/pain;
pain associated w/ the eye; SS

Ophthalmorrhagia

eye/hemorrhage;
hemorrhage (bleeding) of the eye; SS

Astigmatism

w/o/point;
defective curvature of the refractive surface of the eye; DD

Blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid; DD

Cataract

reduction of transparency of the lens; DD

Chalazion

localized swelling at the edge of an eyelid caused by obstruction or a meibomian gland; DD

Conjunctivitis

bind together;
inflammation of the conjunctiva; DD

Corneoiritis

horny/cornea/rainbow/iris/inflammation;
inflammation of the cornea and iris; DD

Dacryocystitis

tear/bladder/sac/inflammation
inflammation of a lacrimal sac; DD

Detached retina

separation of the retina from the choroids at the back of the eye; DD

Diplopia

double vision; DD

Endophthalmitis

w/in/eye/inflammation;
inflammation of internal tissues of the eye; DD

Glaucoma

loss of vision resulting from increased intraocular pressure, which damages the optic nerve; DD

Hordeolum

infection of a meibomian gland causing a local swelling of the eyelid aka sty; DD

Hyperopia

excessive/vision;
reduced vision w/ nearby objects; aka farsightedness; DD

Iridoplegia

rainbow/iris/paralysis;
paralysis of the eye; DD

Iritis

rainbow/iris/inflammation;
inflammation of the iris; DD

Keratitis

hard/horny tissue/inflammation;
inflamation of the cornea; DD

Macular degeneration

progressive deterioration of an area of the retina; degeneration known as the macula lutea, leading to a loss of central vision; the most common cause is age, when it is called age-related macular degeneration; DD

Myopia

to shut/vision;
reduced vision with distant objects; also called nearsightedness; DD

Nyctalopia

night/vision;
poor vision at night or in dim light; DD

Nystagmus

involuntary, rhythmic movement of the eye; DD

Oculomycosis

fungal infection of the eye; DD

Ophthalmopathy

eye/disease;
general term for a disease of the eye; DD

Ophthalmoplegia

paralysis of the eye; affects the muscles that move the eyeball; DD

Photophobia

abnormal fear of light; DD

Photoretinitis

light/net,retina/inflammation;
inflammation of the retina caused by extreme light intensity; DD

Presbyopia

old age/vision;
impaired vision due to aging; DD

Pterygium

abnormal fold of fibrous tissue that extends between the conjunctiva & cornea; DD

Retinitis pigmentosa

net, retina/inflammation;
inherited disease characterized by night blindness, progressive atrophy, and retinal pigment changes; DD

Retinoblastoma

net, retina/germ, bud/developing cell tumor;
malignant tumor that originates from a developing retinal cell; DD

Retinopathy

general term for any disease of the retina; DD

Sclerokeratitis

thick, hard, sclera/hard, horny, tissue/inflammation;
inflammation of the sclera and cornea; DD

Scleromalacia

thick, hard, sclera/softening
softening of the sclera; DD

Scotoma

abnormal blind spot in vision; DD

Strabismus

crossed eyes that is caused by the visual axes failing to meet at the same point; the condition causes a noticeable squint; heterotropia if both eyes deviate inward or outward, esotropia if one eye deviates inward, and exotropia if one eye deviates outward; DD

Blepharoplasty

surgical repair of an eyelid; TPD

Cataract extraction

excision of a lens that has lost its clarity; TPD

Distance visual acuity

a test of the ability to see the details and shape of objects from a recorded distance; TPD

Enucleation

to remove/kernel/process;
excision of an eyeball from the socket; TPD

Fluorescein angiography

BV/recording process;
visual recording of blood vessels in the retina and choroids using fluorescein dye, which is injected into a vein and circulates through the eye; TPD

Intraocular lens

w/in/eye/pertaining to;
surgical implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens; TPD

Iridectomy

rainbow, iris/surgical excision/removal;
excision of a portion of the iris; TPD

Iridotomy

rainbow, iris/cutting into, incision;
incision into the iris to allow the aqueous humor to drain from the anterior chamber; usually performed with a laser to treat glaucoma; TPD

Keratometry

hard, horny tissue/measurement;
procedure using a handheld device called a keratometer, which measures the curvature of the cornea; usually used for fitting contact lenses; TPD

Keratoplasty

hard, horny tissue/surgical repair;
corneal transplant; TPD

LASIK

acronym for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis; the use of a laser to reshape the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct vision abnormalities, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism; TPD

Ophthalmic evaluation

eye/pertaining to;
a variety of procedures using specialized instruments to assist in the diagnosis of eye disorders; TPD

Ophthalmologist

eye/one who studies;
physician who specializes in the study of eyes; TPD

Ophthalmology

eye/study of;
field of medicine that focuses on the study of disease related to the eyes; TPD

Ophthalmoscopy

eye/processing of viewing;
use of a handheld instrument with a light, called an ophthalmoscope, to view the interior of the eye; TPD

Optician

eye/one who treats;
a technician trained in filling prescriptions for corrective lenses; TPD

Optometry

measurement of vision, usually to test acuity for prescribing corrective lenses; the process includes the use of an optometer, which measures the range and sharpness of vision; TPD

Optometrist

a professional—not a physician—trained to examine eyes to correct vision problems and eye disorders; TPD

Phacoemulsification

lens/;
use of ultrasound frequencies to break up a cataract, which is then aspirated and removed; TPD

Photorefractive keratectomy

light/hard, horny tissue/surgical excision;
use of a laser to flatten the corneal surface in an effort to correct myopia; TPD

Radial keratotomy

spoke of a wheel/pertaining to
hard, horny tissue/cutting into, incision;
incisions into the cornea to produce a spoke-like effect, which serves to flatten the cornea and to correct myopia; RK; TPD

Scleral buckling

thick, hard, sclera/pertaining to;
result of repair of a detached retina, in which a portion of the sclera is resected and an implant inserted; the suturing of the implant causes the sclera to buckle slightly; TPD

Sonography

sound/processing of recording;
high-frequency sound waves used to detect problems associated with the eye, such as foreign objects, detached retina, etc.; TPD

Strabotomy

squinting, squint-eyed/cutting into, excision;
incision into the tendon of the eye's extrinsic muscle to correct strabismus (crossed eyes); TPD

Tonometry

tone, tension, pressure/measurement;
measurement of intraocular pressure, primarily used to test for glaucoma; an instrument called a tonometer is used for this test; TPD

Vitrectomy

glassy/excision;
surgical removal of the vitreous humor; TPD

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