GACS lclab Biology - Chapter 6- Chemistry in Biology-Vocabulary

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GACS lclab Biology - Chapter 6- Chemistry in Biology-Vocabulary

atom

building block of matter; contains subatomic particles-nuetrons, electrons, and protons

nucleus

center of an atom

proton

positively charged particles

neutron

particles that have no charge

electron

negatively charged particles

element

pure substance composed of only one type of atom; cannot be broken down into another substance by physical or chemical means

isotope

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

compound

a pure substance that is formed when two or more different elements that are chemically combined

covalent bond

when two atoms share electrons, such as hydrogen sharing oxygen in water, the force that holds them together is called........

covalent bond

the chemical bond when electrons are shared

molecule

a compound in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds

ion

an atom that gains or loses electrons has an electrical charge and is called .......

ionic bond

a bond with an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms call ions

van der Waals forces

the attraction between molecules caused by positive and negative charges when they become close together

chemical reaction

process by which atom or groups of atoms are reorganized into different substances

reactant

substances that exists before a chemical reaction starts

product

substances formed by chemical reactions

activation energy

the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction

catalyst

a substance that lowers the activation energy level needed to start a chemical reaction

enzymes

special proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions

substrates

reactants that bind enzymes

active site

the specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme

polar molecule

molecules with an uneven distribution of charges

hydrogen bond

a weak interaction involving a hydrogen atom and a fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen atom.

mixture

a combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties

solution

a mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent)

solvent

a substance in which anther substance is being dissolved

solute

the substance that is dissolved in the solvent

acid

substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved

base

a substance that releases hydroxide (OH-) ions when dissolved

pH

the measure of H+ concentration in a solution

buffer

mixtures that can react with acids or bases to keep the pH within a particular range

macromolucules

large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together

polymer

molecules made from repeating units of identical compounds

carbohydrate

compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

lipid

molecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen that make up the fats, oils, and waxes

protein

a compound made of small carbon compounds that are called amino acids

amino acid

small compounds that are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sometimes sulfer

nucleic acid

complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information

nucleotide

small repeating subunits that make up nucleic acid

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