virulence, exotoxins, endotoxin

36 terms by sashapenguin 

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virulence factors function to

promote evasion of host immune response

Staphylococcus aureus - virulence factor?

Protein A

Staphylococcus aureus - virulence factor function?

binds Fc region of Ig to prevent opsonization and phagocytosis

Streptococcus pneumoniae - virulence factor?

IgA protease (cleaves IgA in order to colonize respiratory mucosa)

Haemophilus influenzae type B - virulence factor?

IgA protease (cleaves IgA in order to colonize respiratory mucosa)

Neisseria - virulence factor?

IgA protease (cleaves IgA in order to colonize respiratory mucosa)

mnemonic for bacteria which secrete IgA protease

SHiN (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B, Neisseria)

Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) - virulence factor?

M protein

Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) - virulence factor function?

prevent phagocytosis

exotoxin characteristics

polypeptide secreted from cells, encoded on plasmids/bacteriophages, induces antitoxins, not very heat stable

endotoxin characteristics

lipopolysaccharide on outer cell membrane of most Gram negative bacteria, encoded on bacterial chromosome, induces TNF and IL-1 (fever and shock), poorly antigenic, heat stable

Corynebacterium diphetheriae - exotoxin function?

inactivates elongation factor (EF-2) via ADP-ribosylation

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - exotoxin function?

inactivates elongation factor (EF-2) via ADP-ribosylation

Shigella - exotoxin function?

inactivates 60S ribosome by cleaving rRNA

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) - exotoxin function?

inactivates 60S ribosome by cleaving rRNA

Enterotoxigenic E. coli heat-labile - exotoxin function?

overactivates adenylate cyclase --> increases cAMP --> increases Cl- secretion in gut and H20 efflux

Enterotoxigenic E. coli heat-stable - exotoxin function?

overactivates guanylate cyclase --> increases cGMP --> decreases reabsorption of NaCl and H20 in gut

Yersinisa enterocolitica - exotoxin function?

overactivates guanylate cyclase --> increases cGMP --> decreases reabsorption of NaCl and H20 in gut

Bacillus anthracis - exotoxin function?

mimics adenylate cyclase enzyme --> increases cAMP

Vibrio cholerae - exotoxin function?

overactivates adenylate cyclase by permanently activating Gs --> increases cAMP --> increases Cl- secretion in gut and H20 efflux

Bordetella pertussis - exotoxin function?

overactivates adenylate cyclase by inactivating Gi --> increases cAMP --> impairs phagocytosis to permit microbe survival

Clostridium tetani - exotoxin function?

cleaves SNARE protein required for (inhibitory - GABA and glycine) neurotransmitter release

Clostridium botulinum - exotoxin function?

cleaves SNARE protein required for (stimulatory - ACh) neurotransmitter release

Clostridium perfringens - exotoxin function?

phospholipase (lecithinase) which degrades tissue, cell membranes --> myonecrosis and hemolysis

Streptococcus pyogenes - exotoxin?

Streptolysin O

Clostridium perfringens - exotoxin?

Alpha toxin

Streptococcus pyogenes - exotoxin function?

lyses RBCs, contributes to beta-hemolysis

Streptococcus pyogenes - superantigen?

Exotoxin A

Streptococcus pyogenes - superantigen function?

brings MHC II and TCR in proximity to cause overwhelming release of IFN-gamma and IL-2 --> shock

Staphylococcus aureus - superantigen function?

brings MHC II and TCR in proximity to cause overwhelming release of IFN-gamma and IL-2 --> shock

Staphylococcus aureus - superantigen?

TSST-1

exfoliative toxin causes

scalded skin syndrome

enterotoxin causes

food poisoning

Bacillus anthracis - exotoxin?

Edema factor

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - exotoxin?

Exotoxin A

endotoxin activates

macrophages, alternative complement pathway, Hageman factor (XII)

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