# Module II: UNIT 6, Lesson 3

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### Assuming all conditions for gas exchange are ideal, and the O2 enters the blood through the respiratory membrane, what 3 factors determine how much O2 will be transported in the blood from the lungs to the tissues?

1) Pa O2 in blood
2) Quantitly of hemoglobin per 100 ml of blood
3) The chemical environment in the blood

### What is the Pa O2 and the Pa CO2 of inspired air before it reaches the alveoli?

Pa O2 = 160 mmHg
Pa CO2 = 0.3 mmHg

Pa O2 = 104 mmHg
Pa CO2 = 40 mmHg

Pa O2 = 104 mmHg
Pa CO2 = 40 mmHg

Pa O2 = 95 mmHg
Pa CO2 = 40 mmHg

Pa O2 = 95 mmHg
Pa CO2 = 40 mmHg

### What is the Pa O2 and Pa CO2 in the tissues of the body?

Pa O2= <40 mmHg
Pa CO2 = >45 mmHg

Pa O2 = 40 mmHg
Pa CO2 = 45 mmHg

Pa O2 = 40 mmHg
Pa CO2 = 45 mmHg

Pa O2 = 120 mmHg
Pa CO2 = 27 mmHg

### Through what two mediums is O2 carried in the blood?

1) hemoglobin (97% of O2)
2) dissolved in plasma water

O2 = Ks + PaO2

### What does Ks stand for in the formula O2=Ks+PaO2?

Ks = solubility coefficient

*For O2 it is 0.003 ml O2 per dl mmHg

### What would be the % of O2 dissolved in blood plasma if the Pa O2 = 125 mmHg? 130 mmHg?

%O2 = (0.003 x 125)/100 ml blood = 0.375 %
%O2 = (0.003 x 130)/100 ml blood = 0.390 %

250 ml/min

FALSE

### What 2 physiological features of hemoglobin are important in the amount of O2 it can transfer?

1) quantity of hemoglobin
2) O2 affinity (amount of binding sites available)

15 grams

1.36 ml O2

### Determine the amount of O2 carried per 100 ml of blood.

(15 g hemoglobin/100 ml blood) x
(1.36 ml O2/1 g hemoglobin) = 20 ml O2/ 100 ml blood

### What is the term used to describe the amount of O2 carried by hemoglobin present in a known quantity of blood?

oxygen carrying capacity

content

increase

decrease

4

### What 2 factors determine the filling of the O2 binding sites on hemoglobin?

1) Pa O2
2) affinity of the binding sites to O2

### What 4 factors affect the affinity of hemoglobin to O2?

1) pH of blood
2) blood CO2 levels
3) blood temperature
4) the level of diphospoglycerate (DPG)

increase

TRUE

decrease

decrease

### Where is DPG produced in the body?

metabolizing tissues

FALSE

P50

### Define P50.

The partial pressure of O2 in the blood that brings about 50% saturation of hemoglobin.

### Describe the Bohr Effect.

Following the release of CO2 into the lungs in the lung capillaries, blood CO2 levels decrease. This increases the affinity of hemoglobin to O2 and enhances O2 loading. In the tissue capillaries, the release of CO2 into the blood causes the bound O2 to be displaced from hemoglobin and taken up by the tissues.

### Would the presence of carbonmonoxide affect hemoglobin affinity to O2?

Yes; Hemoglobin has higher affinity for carbonmonoxide and thus no O2 can bind to hemoglobin in the presence of carbonmonoxide.

Example: