2 Brady Books: Prehospital Emergency Care 9th Edition - Chapter 2

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5 Emotional Stages of Death and Dying

Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance. (PG. 24)

Acute Stress Reactions

Results from exposure to a high-stress situation. (PG. 26)

Delayed Stress Reaction

Stress reaction occurs from exposure to a high-stress situations but the signs and symptoms are not immediate. (PG. 26)

Cumulative Stress Reactions

Result of constant exposure to stressful situations that build over time. (PG. 27)

Burnout

A condition resulting from chronic job stress, characterized by a state of irritability and fatigue that can markedly decrease effectiveness. (PG. 27)

Common signs and symptoms of stress reactions

Irritability with coworkers, family, and friends, Inability to concentrate, insomnia, nightmares, anxiety, indecisiveness, guilty, and loss of appetite. (PG. 27)

Critical Incident

Any situations that causes unusually strong emotions that interfere with the ability to function. (PG. 29)

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD)

A session where counselors help emergency personnel process emotions from a critical incident. (PG. 29)

Defusing

An opportunity to vent emotions and get information before the CISD. (PG. 30)

Pathogens

Microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses that cause disease. (PG. 30)

Bacteria

Microscopic single-celled organisms that have the capability of reproducing on their own within a host that can provide a favorable environment and food supply. (PG. 30)

Viruses

Smaller than bacteria and cannot grow on their own but require a host cell to reproduce. (PG. 30)

Fungi

Plantlike microorganisms that typically do not cause infection in a person with normally functioning immune system. (PG. 31)

Protozoa

Single-celled organisms that are typically found in the soil and are able to move. (PG. 31)

Helminths

Parasitic worms, such as roundworms, flukes, and tapeworms, that cause infection. (PG. 31)

Standards Precautions

A method of preventing infection based on the concept that all blood and body fluids are infectious. (PG. 32)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Equipment worn to protect against injury and against spreading infectious disease. (PG. 32)

Cleaning

The process of washing a soiled object with soap and water. (PG. 35)

Disinfecting

Using a disinfectant such as alcohol or bleach to kill microorganisms. (PG. 35)

Sterilization

Subjecting an object to chemical or physical substances (typically, superheated steam in an autoclave) that kill all microorganisms. (PG. 35)

Purified Protein Derivative Tuberculin Test (PPD)

A test to determine the presene of a tuberculosis infection based on a person's positive reaction to tuberculin, a substance prepared from the tubercle bacillus. (PG. 36)

Hepatitis B

Symptoms Include: Fatigue, Nausea, Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, headache, fever, jaundice, and dark urine. (PG. 36)

Hepatitis C

Symptoms Include: Jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, dark urine, and loss of appetite. (PG. 37)

Tuberculosis

Symptoms Include: Fever, cough, coughing up blood, night sweats, and weight loss.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Symptoms Include: Persistent low grade fever, night sweats, swollen lymph glands, loss of appetite, nausea, persistent diarrhea, headache, sore throat, fatigue, weight loss, shortness of breath, mental status changes, muscle/joint aches, rash, and opportunistic infections. (PG. 37-38)

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Symptoms include: High fever greater than 100 Degrees, headache/body ache, general discomfort, respiratory symptoms, diarrhea, and dry cough. (PG. 38)

West Nile Virus (WNV)

Symptoms include: Severe case: High fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, disorientation to coma, seizures, muscle weakness, numbness, paralysis, and vision loss.

Mild case: Fever, headache, body ache, nausea, vomiting, rash, and swollen lymph glands. (PG. 38)

Comprehensive critical incident stress management should include:

Pre-incident stress education, on-line peer support, one-one one support, disaster support services, defusing, CISD, follow-up services, spouse and family support, community outreach, and other health and welfare.

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