Apologia Biology Module 8 Edition 2

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True Breeding

If an organism has a certain characteristic that is always passed on to its offspring, we say that this organism bred true with respect to that characteristic.

Allele

One of a pair of genes that occupies the same position on homologous chromosomes

Genotype

Two-letter set that represents the alleles an organism posseses for a certain time

Phenotype

The observable expression of an organism's genes

Homozygous Genotype

A genotype in which both alleles are identical

Heterozygous Genotype

A genotype with two different alleles

Dominant Allele

An allele that will determine phenotype if just one is present in the genotype

Recessive Allele

An allele that will not determine the phenotype unless the genotype is homozygous in that allele

Pedigree

A diagram that follows a particular phenotype through several generations

Monohybrid Cross

A cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait

Dihybrid Cross

A cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits

Autosomes

Chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual

Sex Chromosomes

Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

Antigen

A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody

Autosomal Inheritance

Inheritance of a genetic trait not on a sex chromosome

Genetic Disease Carrier

A person who is heterozygous in a recessive genetic disorder

Sex-linked Inheritance

Inheritance of a genetic trait located on the sex chromosomes

Mutation

A radical chemical change in one or more alleles

Change in Chromosomes Structure

A situation in which a chromosome loses or gains genes during meiosis

Change in Chromosome Number

A situation in which abnormal cellular events in meiosis lead to either none of a particular chromosome in the gamete or more than one chromosome in the gamete

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