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Which of the following is involved in initializing inflammation?

Basophil

Normal microbiota provide protection from infection by all of the following except ____.

They produce lysozyme

Innate immunity is

The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen.

Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to ____.

produce toxic oxygen products

The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to ____.

remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract

The mechanism of action of interferon includes all of the following except ____.

it inactivates viruses

Which of the following is not a characteristic of inflammation?

Fever

Which of the following does not provide protection from phagocytic digestion?

None of the above

Adherence of phagocytes may be accomplished by all of the following except

Lysozyme

Which of the following is not an effect of complement activation?

Interference with viral replication

In a bacterial infection, what type of white blood cell is the first to arrive at the site of infection?

neutrophils

Crisis is a sign that ____.

body temperature is falling

Which of the following is not a physical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?

Lysozyme

What direct effect do histamines and leukotrienes have on capillaries?

They allow capillary walls to open and become leaky.

Which of the following exhibits highest phagocytic activity?

neutrophils

Which of the following white blood cells is most likely to be involved in the destruction of a tumor cell?
Which of the following white blood cells is most likely to be involved in the destruction of a tumor cell?

Lymphocytes

Why is vasodilation important to tissue repair?

It allows for an increased delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and phagocytes to the site of damage.

Which of the following statements about interferons is not true?

They are virus specific.

The process by which a phagocyte moves toward a chemical signal at the site of an infection is called ____.

chemotaxis

Crisis is a sign that ____.

body temperature is falling

Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?

Eosinophil

If a new bacterial pathogen entered a human body through an accidental needle stick, the first cell that would try to kill the pathogen would likely be ____.

a phagocyte

Adherence of phagocytes may be accomplished by all of the following except

Lysozyme

Which of the following is involved in initializing inflammation?

Basophil

Which cells directly attack abnormal cells in the body?

Cytotoxic T cells

In a bacterial infection, what type of white blood cell is the first to arrive at the site of infection?

neutrophils

What is the effect of interferons?

Interferes with viral multiplication.

Chlamydia can prevent the formation of the phagolysosome, and therefore Chlamydia can ____.

avoid being digested

Which of the following is not an effect of complement activation?

Interference with viral replication

First line defenses have what aspect in common with each other?

They are physical barriers against invading pathogens.

Which of the following is not a function of inflammation?

None of the above

What is a phagolysosome?

The structure that results from the fusion of a phagosome and a lysosome.

Which of the following is not a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?

...

Which of the following is involved in adaptive immunity?

Lymphocyte

Which of the following is not a physical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?

Lysozyme

Which one of the following is not an effect of fever?

Kills pathogens.

What complement result involves the use of phagocytes?

Chemotaxis and opsonization

Mucous membranes are a part of ____.

innate defense

All of the following can be determined from a differential white blood cell count except _____.

the numbers of red blood cells

Which of the following is not a physical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?

Lysozyme

Inflammation is a ____ response to infection.

local

Which of these cells is not phagocytic?

NK cells

Which of the following does not provide protection from phagocytic digestion?

None of the above

Chills is a sign that ____.

body temperature is rising

Which of the following is found normally in serum?

Complement

What is the role of opsonins?

They create "handles" that make it easier for the pseudopods of phagocytes to attach to the microbe invader.

All of the following can be determined from a differential white blood cell count except _____.

the numbers of red blood cells

Which of the following is not a characteristic of inflammation?

Fever

Bacteria are first ingested into a _____ during phagocytosis.

phagosome

Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?

Increased adherence of phagocytes to microbes.

Which is not an outcome of complement activation?

Fever

Macrophages arise from which of the following?

Monocyte

Normal microbiota provide protection from infection by all of the following except ____.

They produce lysozyme

Which of the following is involved in adaptive immunity?

Lymphocyte

Both the innate and adaptive defenses of the immune system work to prevent ____.

the penetration and colonization by pathogens, and the diseases they cause

Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?

Eosinophil

If a new bacterial pathogen entered a human body through an accidental needle stick, the first cell that would try to kill the pathogen would likely be ____.

a phagocyte

Which is not an outcome of complement activation?

Fever

What complement result involves the use of phagocytes?

Chemotaxis and opsonization

Which of these is not a characteristic of innate immunity?

Has memory component

Which of the following does not provide protection from phagocytic digestion?

None of the above

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