Physiology

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Quiz questions from Laurel's notecards

Homeostasis

Regulation around set points, maintaining a stable environment

Homeostasis

Compensatory responses/ negative feedback

2/3

___ Fraction of cell is intracellular fluid

1/3

___ fraction of cell is extracellular fluid

extracellular

Interstitial fluid is contained in the intracellular/extracellular fluid

Diffusion

Solute movement on chemical concentration gradient (High to low)

Osmosis

Water movement from hi to low conentration

Hydrophilic

Polar slats and ions are hydro philic/phobic

hydrophobic

Non-polar lipids and fats are hydro philicphobic

Basic

Ammonia is acidic/basic

tissues

Cells are organized into:

organs

Tissues are organized into:

organ systems

Organs are organized into:

set points

Regulation of body's internal environment around _____________

negative feedback

Homeostasis uses compensatory responses also known as: (this is to "make up for")

Exchange cells

The cells of the kidney that remove waste, of the luns that exchange oxygen, and the digestive cells for nutrients are called:

diffusion

The movement of solute molecules

Osmosis

the movement of Water molecules

pH

Buffers minimize ___ change

nucleotides

DNA, RNA cAMP, and ATP are examples of:

nucleotides

These transmit info and provide energy from bonds

Carbohydrates

These are polar/ water elements that provide energy, structure, and cell identifiers

Polar

Carbohydrates are polar/nonpolar

hydrophobic

Lipids are hydro phobic/philic

nonpolar

Lipids are polar/nonpolar

less

Saturated fatty acids are less/more flexible than unsaturated fatty acids

less

Unsaturated fats have more/less energy than saturated fats

saturated

Trans fats behave like ________ fats

triglyceride

1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids =

triglycerides

Body fat is found in the form of

Phospholipid

1 phosphate group + 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids =

phospholipid

These have a polar head and nonpolar tail and are found in membranes

cholesterol

Known as a steroid lipid

cholesterol

These provide structure and flexibility and are made in the liver so we don't need to eat them

nonpolar

Cholesterol is polar/nonpolar

protein

These are very sensitive to pH and temperature changes

polar

Proteins are polar/nonpolar

protein

These are enzymes that are transporters/carriers in membranes

Cell membranes

AKA phospholipid bilayer

ICF

More K+ is found in the ICF/ECF

ECF

More Na+, Cl-, and Ca+ are found in the ICF, ECF

cyclic adenosine mono phosphate

cAMP stands for:

Adenosine triphosphate

ATP stands for

soluble

Carbohydrates are generally soluble/insoluble in water

nonpolar

Generally hydrophobic= polar/nonpolar

9

Fats have __ calories/gram

4

Carbs and Protien have __ calories/gram

triglycerides

fats in the form of _____________ are te primary form of stored energy

double

Saturated fatty acids have no __________ bonds

some

Unsaturated fatty acids have ______ double bonds

Less

Unsaturated fats have ___ energy than saturated fats

Triglycerides

____________ are the primary "body fat"

blood vessels

Where does cholesterol eaten accumulate?

Cholesterol

_____________ is a steroid lipid produced in the liver and other organs of animals

Phospholipid

This is the major component of biological membranes

Slightly soluble; polar; nonpolar

How soluble in water are phospholipids (due to glycerol-phosphate end being ____ and the fatty acids being ______

amino acids

Proteins are composed of:

Protein

This is the source of Nitrogen in our diets

polypeptides

Strings of amino acids are

carbohydrates, phospholipids, proteins

What biomolecules are likely to be soluble in polar solvents such as water? (3)

Lipids, fatty acids

Which biomolecules are likely to be soluble in nonpolar solvents such as oil? (2)

Meat tissue because cholesterol is important in cell membrane structure, but the fatty rind can become cholesterol

Which has more cholesterol, the muscle "meat" tissue of a pork chop, or the fatty rind and why?

bilayer

Phospholipids in water form a:

cell membranes

These are mostly lipid and protein with a small amount of carbohydrate (Unsaturated fatty acids for flexibility)

Both

Will cholesterol increase or decrease membrane flexibility?

Hydrophobic

Is cholesterol hydro philic/phobic?

Enzymes; transporters

Proteins in membranes act as (2)

Cell identifiers

Carbs on membranes usually serve as: (important component of glycoproteins and glycolipids

selectively permeable

Membranes are ____________: some substances can pass through, some cannot

Small; lipophilic

_____ and _____ substances can diffuse through the bilayer between phospholipids using simple diffusion

Polar; charged; large

Impermeable substances are ________, _________, and _________

Simple diffusion

______________ is when a selectively permeable membraneallows substances to pass straight through the membrane

Do

Non-polar, small molecules and lipids do/ do not pass freely via simple diffusion

Protein

Facilitated diffusion requires a:

Channel

_______ proteins are required for facilitated diffusion: They are selectively permeable to size, charge, and shape

Transporter

________ proteins are required for facilitated diffusion: They bind to the molecule causing a conformational change an release the molecule on the other side

Cotransporters

These are another form of proteins that are required for facilitated diffusion: This is when one molecule often moves down the concentration gradint and another against it: Like carpooling

Symporters

cotransporters moving in the same direction

Antiports

Cotransporters moving in opposite directions

Uniport

One molecule of glucose moved down the concentration gradient that is mountained by conversin of gucose

Cotransport

Symport where sodium (Na+) moves into cell by cncentration gradien and glucose moves into cell against concentration gradient

1. Temperature gradient
2. Conentration gradient
3. Carrier saturation
4. Antagonists block binding sites
5. Agonists bind elsewhere to increase transporter reactions

5 things that Affect Rate of Facilitated Diffusion

Up-regulation

The regulaton with an increased number of carrier proteins

Down-regulation

The regultion with a decreased number of carrier proteins

Antagonists

These block binding sites

Agonists

These bind elsewhere o increase transporter reaction

ATP

Primary Active transport requires:

against

Primay Active transport moves things with/against the concentration gradient

Up

The Na/K pump moves both substances up/down the concentratio gradient

Secondary Active Transport

This involves 2 carrier proteins

Simple diffusion

The passive transport mechanism, fueled only by kinetic energy in the molecule

Higher; greater

Higher/Lower temperatures and lower/greater concentration differences lead to faster diffusion

K+

Which ion is larger: K+ or Na+?

Facilitated diffusion

This uses membrane proteins which temporarily bin the substance being transported: Binding leads to a confrmational change, the substance is released to the other side of the membrane: Follows the concentration gradient

Glucose Trasporters

AKA GLUT transporters

Insulin

This causes cells to take up more glucose

Primary Active Transport

this uses energy in ATP to inuce a conformational change in a transporter protein: moves substances AGAINST their concentration gradients

Osmoregulation

The regulation of the distribution and amount of water andions in the ECF

hyperosmotic

If cells become hyper/hypo-osmotic, cells shrink

bad

Is cells shrinking good or bad?

60-70

__-__% of body weight is water

2/3

What fraction of total body water is in ICF

Hyposmotic

When cells are ____________, cells expand and burst

Increases

Blood pressure ___________ when you become very hydrated

Decreases

Blood pressure ___________ when yu become dehydrated

Increases

When cells become hyperosmotc from eating salt, blood pressure ___________

Decreases

When cells become hyperosmotic from losing water, blood pressure ___________

Skin

This prevents water loss from the body

Kidney

Function of this organ can reduce or increase water an ion loss

Behavioral thirst mechanisms

The only way to gain water

Skin

The largest organ in your body

1. Sensory Information
2. Heat gain/loss
3. Barrier to prevent water loss and bacterial invasion

Three Functions of the skin

Dermis

The ______ or dermal laer is a connective tissue holding blood vessels, nerve endings, muscles, and exocrine glands

Deral Exocrine glands

This is composed of sebaceous gland, sweat glands, and apocine glands

Sebaceous glands

these secrete oils which are antibacterial and waterproofing

Apocrine glands

These secrete oils that bacteria convert to odors, scent glands

Sweat glands

These secrete hyposmotic fluid (mostly water) toaid heat loss, thermoregulation

keratin

Epithelial cellson the surface are dead and flled with_________ protein

Keratin Protein

These fibersprotect againt water loss, mechanical damage

1. Burned off epidermis: decreased keratin
2. Dermis burned
3. Burns epi and dermal layer and more

Why might burn victims develop dehydration

1. Osmoregulation
2. Regulates pH
3. Works with cardiovasculat system to regulate blood pressure
4. Hormone Production
5. Removal of metabolic waste
6. Removal of xenobiotics, drugs

Functions of the kidneys

Erythropoietin

The kidney produces this hormone for red blood cell production

Aldosterone

The kidneys reglate this chemical whic affects ion flux in the rnal system

Nitrogenous waste

This toxic waste is removed by the renal system: Protion catabolism leaves ammonia, enzyms of the Urea Cycle in the liver converts N wste into urea, and uea from the liver enters blood, is transported to the kidney, which excretes it in urine

Urea

Which is less toxic: amonia or urea

Urobilinogen

The kidneys remove this chemical prodces from hemoglobin breakdown: It is an oxygen carrier and is yellow

Hormones

The kidneys also remove these in addition to urobilinogen and nitrogenous waste

Filtrate

Fluid in the kidney is initially called:

hyperosmotic; urine

After processingi the kidney, filtrate is _________ and is called ___________

Ureter; bladder; urethra

Urin enters the ______ and is stored in the ______. Urine eaves the bladder through the ______.

Micturation

This controls fluid loss thrugh the urethra: controls the muscles

Nephrons

Kidneys are composed of tubes called ______

Cortical; cortex

The _____ or _____ region is the surface of the kidney

Medullary; medulla

The _______ or _______ is the center of the kidney

glomerulus

The renal artery branches ino arterioles, and forms a ________ at each nephron

Bowman's capsule

This part of the nephron and glomerulus of the kidney

Renal corpuscle

This is composed of the Bowman's capsule and it filters the blood in the glomerulus

Lumen

This is the inside of the tubes of the kidny

Corpuscle

Filration only occurs in the ______ or the kidney

Bowman's Capsule

Reabsorptio occurs everywhere except in this part of the kidney

1. Reglates ECF fluid volume
2. Regulates ion cencentrations

Functions of osmoregulation: (2)

1. Produces bicarbonate to offset acidity
2. Increases H+ in tissues to offset basicity

Ways the kidneys regulate pH of plasma and tissues

Filtration

Thisis the first step of urine formation

Filtrate

Reabsorpton and secretion modify the _____

Afferent arterioles; capillary nets

20% of blood in the _______ is filtered into nephrons, most enters ___________

Hydrostatic

Filtratin pressure is ____ pressure, blood pressure

Drink lots of water to increase blood pressure

In a healthy person, what might that person do to increase glomerular filtration rate?

Autoregulation

This keep glomerular filtration rate constant ver a WIDE range of blood pressures

Myogenic response; vasoconstriction

This of smooth uscle, when it is stretched, it responds by contracting via ______

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