GACS lclab Honors Biology - Chapter 2 - Principles of Ecology - Section 2.1 - Organisms and their Relationships

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GACS lclab Honors Biology - Chapter 2 - Section 2.1 - Organisms and their Relationships

ecology

the scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms ahve with their environment are studied.

ecologists

scientists who study ecology

longitudinal analysis

some observations and analyses must be made over long periods of time n a process called

model

allows a scientist to represent or simulate a process or system

models

allows ecologists to control the number of variables present and to slowly introduce new variable in order to fully understand the effect of each variable

Yellowstone Park

first national park in the US

Indigenous Environmental Network (IEN)

directed by Tom Goldtrooth, formed by native Americans to protect their tribal lands and communities from environmental damage

Montreal Protocal

An agreement between the US and other countries to phase out the use of chemical compounds that destroy atmospheric ozone

biosphere

the portion of Earth that supports life; includes several kilometers below the Earth's surface and several kilometers below the Earth's surface into deep ocean vents.

chlorophyll

greeen pigment found in green plants and algea

biotic

living factors in an organism's environment

biotic factors in a habitat for salmon

biotic factors include all organisms that live in the water, such as other fish, algae, frogs, and microscpic organisms

abiotic

nonliving factors in an organism's environment

abiotic factors

temperature, air or water currents, sunlight, soil type, rainfall or available nutrients

levels or oganization

organism, population, biological community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere

organism

lowest level of an organization; example a single fish

population

individual organisms or a single species that share the same geographic location at the same time make up a ...

biological community

na group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time

ecosystem

a biological community and all of the abiotic factors that affect it

biome

a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities

biosphere

the highest level of organization which is the layer of Earth that supports life

habitat

an area where an organism lives; might be a single tree or or a grove of trees

niche

the role or position that an organism has in its environment; how it meets its needs for food, shelter and reproduction

competition

occurs when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time

predation

the act of one organism consuming another organism for food

predator

organism that pursues another organism

prey

organism that is pursued by another organism

beneficial insects

used by organic gardeners for insect control instead of insecticides

Venus flytrap

a plant that is a predator - has modified leaves that form small traps for insects and other small animals

symbiosis

the close relationship that exists when two or more species live together

mutualism

the close relationship that exists between two or more organisms that live closely together and benefit from each other

commensalism

a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is neither helped nor harmed

mutualism relationship

algae and fungi where algae provides food for fungi and fungi provide a habitat for the algae

kinds of symbiosis

mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism

commensualism relationship

clownfish receives food from and protection while sea anemones are not harmed (and do not benefit from the relationship)

parasitism

symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another organism

parasites

can be external like ticks/fleas or internal like bacteria or roundworms

brood parasitism

rely on other bird species to build their nests and incubate their eggs

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